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Title:Research Videos | Scientists Share Their Latest Thinking
Description:鈻 Browse our website and be inspired by loads of research videos featuring scientists and academics from various fields of study. LATEST THINKING provides you with free access to what is cutting-edge research.
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Research Videos | Scientists Share Their Latest Thinking
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Newest Videos
Conflicts of Interest
Medical Ethics
07:38
Klaus Lieb
How Prevalent is Conflict of Interest in the Medical Profession?
Allegiance to a particular form of therapy or financial ties to a pharmaceutical company are among the phenomena that can undermine a physician鈥檚 primary goal, to provide the best possible treatment for his or her patients. In this video, KLAUS LIEB explores the ways in which conflicts of interest occur for both physicians and medical researchers before providing some suggestions as to how they might be avoided.
[...]
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Soil Animal Food Webs
Belowground Ecology
10:22
Stefan Scheu
How Do Belowground Components Contribute to the Healthy Functioning of Ecological Systems?
Being easier to observe, the aboveground components of ecological systems tend to be considered of predominant importance. In this video, STEFAN SCHEU explains the extent to which the healthy functioning of these systems is dependent on what happens underground. With visual observation impossible, Scheu employs isotope labeling to trace the paths taken by particular elements belowground. Where it was heretofore understood
[...]
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Quantum Hall Effect
Semiconductors
08:28
Laurens W. Molenkamp
What Is the Quantum Spin Hall Effect and Why Is It Import?
The quantum spin Hall effect was first proposed by Kane and Mele in 2005. In this video, LAURENS MOLENKAMP outlines how his team鈥檚 focus on mercury telluride has provided notable insights into this phenomenon. Conducting transport experiments on special semiconductors grown using a molecular beam epitaxy machine, Molenkamp鈥檚 findings include the identification of the quantum Hall effect in a three dimensional
[...]
Watch video
Multicellular Life
Microbiology
11:25
Thomas Bosch
What Can the Origins of Multicellular Life Teach Us About How Bodies Function?
Multicellular organisms first took their place in the evolutionary chain some 450 million years ago. In this video, THOMAS BOSCH seeks to extend our understanding of how human and animal bodies function via analysis of these ancient creatures. Focusing on the freshwater polyp Hydra and employing techniques including molecular cell biology, modern sequencing technology and in depth study of stem cell behavior, Bosch argues
[...]
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Taxation
Social Cost Benefit Analysis
10:12
Bas Jacobs
Should Governments Apply a Correction for the Cost of Taxation in Social Cost Benefit Analysis?
Distortionary costs of taxation refer to things like individuals鈥 reluctance to work or invest more as a result of governments raising taxes. In this video, BAS JACOBS considers whether governments should apply a correction for such costs of taxation in social benefit cost analyses. Applying the optimal taxation model, Jacobs notes that the distributional benefits of public investment in projects like bridges or
[...]
Watch video
Parenting
Family Economics
12:12
Matthias Doepke
How Can Economics Help Us Explain Parenting?
The choices that we make as parents are among the most important that we make in our lifetimes: whether to have children, how many children to have, what form of education should we provide. In this video, MATTHIAS DOEPKE explains how the economic method can help us to understand the choices that parents make. Economic factors clearly constrain parental choice and, drawing on the concept of parenting style developed in
[...]
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Replication
Empirical Research
10:24
Maren Duvendack
Why Does Replication Encounter Such Resistance in Economics?
Claims that less than 10% of published scientific papers can be reproduced have led to increased interest in replication, a process whereby researchers check the validity of published empirical findings. In this video, MAREN DUVENDACK investigates why replication has faced particular resistance in economics. Analyzing some 200 replication studies that have appeared in leading economics journals over the past 60 years,
[...]
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Equity Markets
Financial Economics
09:43
S枚hnke M. Bartram
How Can We Determine the Informational Efficiency of Global Equity Markets?
For equity markets, the digital age means that information transfer and its impact on price are more important than ever. In this video, S脰HNKE M. BARTRAM explains how one goes about measuring the informational efficiency of international equity markets. Analyzing over 25,000 individual stocks from more than 36 countries, Bartram finds that the informational efficiency of global equity markets leaves much to be desired.
[...]
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Freedom from Work
Human Rights Law
08:44
Nicolas Bueno
Should We Have a New Human Right to Freedom From Work?
The importance of the human right to work is recognized by its inclusion in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In this video, NICOLAS BUENO proposes that we reflect on its necessity and reimagine it as something more ambitious, as a new human right to freedom from work. Analyzing the historical context in which labor and fundamental economic rights emerged, Bueno observes that they were conceived to protect not
[...]
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Social Rank
Economics of Education
11:17
Felix Weinhardt
How Can Classroom Rank Affect Students in Later Life?
Many factors in early years鈥 education can have lasting effects. In this video, FELIX WEINHARDT analyzes the impact that a student鈥檚 rank position in the elementary school classroom can have in later life. Working with data from England and Texas, Weinhardt observes that a student鈥檚 rank position at the top, middle or bottom of their elementary school class, along with shifts in that position, can affect not only
[...]
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Road Pricing
Market Design
07:23
Peter Cramton
How Can We Eliminate Traffic Congestion in Urban Centers?
As well as resulting in frustration for drivers, traffic congestion leads to significant economic costs. In this video, PETER CRAMTON argues that a properly implemented road pricing system can enable us to eliminate traffic congestion in urban areas. The study explains that once road usage is accurately measured, principles of market design can be used to develop and implement a highly efficient pricing system with
[...]
Watch video
Super-Diversity
Migration
12:47
Steven Vertovec
How Can We Best Respond to the Challenges Presented by Super-Diversity?
More people from more places are migrating to more places, leading to greater linguistic, religious and ethnic diversity, especially in urban areas. In this video, STEVEN VERTOVEC analyzes this super-diversification and considers how societies can best respond to the challenges it presents. With sources ranging from U.N. and World Bank migration data to more ethnographic, everyday research, Vertovec observes that
[...]
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Microscopic Structure of Space-Time
Physics
13:35
Astrid Eichhorn
What is the Fundamental Microscopic Structure of Space-Time in our Universe?
What are the building blocks of our universe that everything is made of? In this video, ASTRID EICHHORN explains how her work seeks to reveal the fundamental microscopic structure of space-time. While recent pioneering experiments have confirmed aspects of Einstein鈥檚 General Theory of Relativity, this work seeks to overcome the limitations of current observational technology through theoretical investigations of the
[...]
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Financial Crisis
Bank Regulation
12:47
J枚rg Rocholl
What Are the Transmission Channels in a Financial Crisis?
In the 2008 financial crisis, problems originating in the U.S. banking sector had effects not only on other parts of the U.S. economy but also internationally. In this video, J脰RG ROCHOLL sets out to identify the transmission channels through which such problems spread. Focusing, in the first instance, on how the 2008 crisis affected German banks, Rocholl observes that German corporate and retail customers saw their
[...]
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Homo sapiens
Archeology
11:46
Michael Petraglia
What New Insights Can Archeology Provide Into Homo sapiens鈥 Emergence from Africa?
Traditional theory holds that Homo sapiens鈥 first moved Out of Africa into Eurasia along coastal routes some 60,000 years ago. In this video, MICHAEL PETRAGLIA explodes this theory demonstrating that modern humans emerged from Africa much earlier and, at least some of the time, via inland routes. Employing satellite imagery to identify ancient rivers and lakes in what are present-day desert regions, the team
[...]
Watch video
Non-Work
Labor Economics
10:45
Michael Burda
What Can 鈥淣on-Work鈥 Teach Us About the Labor Market?
Periods of non-work occur when employees are at work but not working (outside of scheduled breaks). In this video, MICHAEL C. BURDA analyzes the incidence and intensity of non-work in the United States, considering how it fits in with the business cycle. Drawing on data from the American Time Use Survey, Burda develops a model based on the efficiency wage theory. His research presents some striking insights into the
[...]
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Isotope Analysis
Paleomobility
09:41
Patrick Roberts
What Can We Learn from Studying Homo sapiens鈥 First Moves into Tropical Forests?
In popular culture as in traditional archaeology, the tropical forest has been assumed to represent an environment inhospitable to humans. In this video, PATRICK ROBERTS challenges this view, demonstrating not only that Homo sapiens moved into tropical forests much earlier than previously thought but also that significant agricultural and urban societies existed in these places in the ancient past. Employing techniques
[...]
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Decision-Making
Behavioral Economics
11:52
Georg Weizs盲cker
What Is the Economic Relevance of Human Indecisiveness?
When faced with difficult decisions, people often demonstrate a preference for randomization, for the toss of a coin for example. In this video, GEORG H. WEIZS脛CKER explains that economic decision theory struggles to accommodate this phenomenon and he explores its consequences, focusing on the German university application system. Weizs盲cker finds that, for significant numbers of applicants, the propensity to avoid
[...]
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Context
Entrepreneurship
00:48
Friederike Welter
What is the Importance of Context in Entrepreneurship Research?
Fieldwork has demonstrated that entrepreneurial behavior and economic theory do not work in the same ways in different national, cultural or regulatory contexts. In this video, FRIEDERIKE WELTER analyzes the importance of context in entrepreneurship research. Developing an interdisciplinary approach that draws on insights from philosophy, anthropology, ethnology, and linguistics, Welter examines how contextual issues have
[...]
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Anthropology Videos
Origin of Japanese
Literature Language
12:29
Martine Robbeets
Where Did the Japanese Language and Its Speakers Come From?
One of the most disputed issues in historical-comparative linguistics is the origin of the Japanese language and the question of whether it is related to the Transeurasian languages. MARTINE ROBBEETS has already shown in past research that it is possible to find a small core of evidence that relates Japanese as a daughter language of Transeurasian. This, she explains in this video, leads to new questions: How and why did
[...]
Watch video
Isotope Analysis
Paleomobility
09:41
Patrick Roberts
What Can We Learn from Studying Homo sapiens鈥 First Moves into Tropical Forests?
In popular culture as in traditional archaeology, the tropical forest has been assumed to represent an environment inhospitable to humans. In this video, PATRICK ROBERTS challenges this view, demonstrating not only that Homo sapiens moved into tropical forests much earlier than previously thought but also that significant agricultural and urban societies existed in these places in the ancient past. Employing techniques
[...]
Watch video
Dental Placque
Anthropology
12:12
Christina Warinner
What Does Dental Calculus Reveal About Human Evolution?
Dental calculus, a calcified form of tooth plaque, can give detailed information about the diets, diseases and lifestyles of past humans. CHRISTINA WARINNER discusses how she gains new knowledge about the way human beings used to live, what they ate, and how their microbiome has evolved. Dental calculus is the richest known source of ancient DNA in the archaeological record, and it is the only part of the body that
[...]
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Tourism
Anthropology
10:46
Carsten Wergin
How Does Tourism Change People and Places?
The classic image that tourists and travelers should only leave footprints and take photos is put into question by CARSTEN WERGINs academic investigation of how tourism has changed the world. In this video, he describes his interest in the question of how tourism impacts on particular places and people. In his field studies and during participant observations he has found that tourism is not only a global industry, it
[...]
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Human Evolution
Anthropology
10:57
Jean-Jacques Hublin
How Could the Modern Human Succeed over Other Hominids?
Modern humans colonized the whole planet and replaced all other hominids, such as Neanderthals. This evolvement raises interesting evolutionary questions concerning both species. The paleoanthropological research presented in this video looks at a moment in time when both co-existed. In order to find out about the differences between them, JEAN-JACQUES HUBLIN looks at both species鈥 use of technology, behavior, and
[...]
Watch video
Super-Diversity
Migration
12:47
Steven Vertovec
How Can We Best Respond to the Challenges Presented by Super-Diversity?
More people from more places are migrating to more places, leading to greater linguistic, religious and ethnic diversity, especially in urban areas. In this video, STEVEN VERTOVEC analyzes this super-diversification and considers how societies can best respond to the challenges it presents. With sources ranging from U.N. and World Bank migration data to more ethnographic, everyday research, Vertovec observes that
[...]
Watch video
Homo sapiens
Archeology
11:46
Michael Petraglia
What New Insights Can Archeology Provide Into Homo sapiens鈥 Emergence from Africa?
Traditional theory holds that Homo sapiens鈥 first moved Out of Africa into Eurasia along coastal routes some 60,000 years ago. In this video, MICHAEL PETRAGLIA explodes this theory demonstrating that modern humans emerged from Africa much earlier and, at least some of the time, via inland routes. Employing satellite imagery to identify ancient rivers and lakes in what are present-day desert regions, the team
[...]
Watch video
UNESCO World Heritage
Politics International Studies
13:23
Christoph Brumann
How Is the UNESCO World Heritage Title Being Awarded and What Are Its Consequences?
The UNESCO World Heritage title has become a powerful global brand. It influences people鈥檚 decisions of where to travel and conveys prestige and national pride. CHRISTOPH BRUMANN and his research group investigated how this title is being awarded and what its consequences are on the ground at the chosen sites. Brumann explains in this video that using a two-fold anthropological approach, the researchers found that,
[...]
Watch video
Terrorism
Politics International Studies
12:08
Carolin G枚rzig
How Do Terrorist Groups Learn and Unlearn Violence?
It is very difficult to learn something new if you haven鈥檛 unlearned what you have done before. In this video, CAROLIN G脰RZIG shows how we can better understand and influence the processes by which terrorist groups learn and unlearn violence. Drawing on insights provided by the deradicalization of organizations like the Provisional IRA (Irish Republican Army), and with fieldwork ongoing in territories including
[...]
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Chimpanzee Culture
Zoology
14:31
Christophe Boesch
Do Wild Chimpanzee Populations Develop Diverse Cultures?
Humans pride themselves on having extensive and diverse cultures. However, cultures can also be observed in animals. The research presented in this video aims at understanding the cultures of wild chimpanzee populations in several African countries and how they differ from each other. As chimpanzees avoid human contact, CHRISTOPHE BOESCH explains, the research team conducted the study by setting up camera traps to catch
[...]
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Genetic Makeup
Anthropology
14:56
Johannes Krause
Are Europeans Today Genetically Different from Their Ancestors?
Different ethnic groups have shaped the genetic makeup of today鈥檚 Europeans. Through migration from various regions of the world, the genetic material of humans who first arrived in Europe forty thousand years ago has seen drastic changes over the last ten thousand years. By analyzing D.N.A extracted from ancient bones, JOHANNES KRAUSE traces back the genetic ancestry of human beings, especially those living in Europe
[...]
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Writing Systems
Literature Language
12:26
Olivier Morin
How Does Writing Reflect Deep Human Preferences for Certain Shapes?
Human development is determined by biology and culture. Biologically seen, the history of evolution has brought us certain cognitive biases, whereas our cultural legacy is built through interactions with other people. OLIVIER MORIN pursues research at the intersection of these two legacies and his particular area of interest is cultural transmission. As he explains in this video, one thing we inherit from evolutionary
[...]
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Confucianism
Theology Religion
11:27
Peter van der Veer
Is Confucianism a Religion or a Secular Moral System?
When asked about the place of religion in their culture, many Chinese people will answer that China is a secular country with no major impact of religion. However, as PETER VAN DER VEER explains in this video, the Chinese are more religious than this perspective suggests and perform many rituals in their daily life. His research shows that this interpretation of Confucianism results from the historical influence of
[...]
Watch video
Society Religion
Cultural Studies
08:09
Russell Gray
Did Religion Play a Causal Role in the Evolution of Large, Complex Societies?
The notion of a powerful god is often said to play a significant role in supporting the transition from small relatively equal hunter and gatherer societies to big hierarchical societies. However, as RUSSELL GRAY explains in this video, while there is a correlation between 鈥渂ig gods鈥 and 鈥渂ig societies鈥, this is no causal relationship. By comparing the evolution of different forms of social organization in
[...]
Watch video
Pop-Islamism
Ethnic Studies
12:22
Dominik M眉ller
How Has the Islamic Party of Malaysia鈥檚 Stance Towards Popular Culture Evolved?
While doing anthropological fieldwork in Malaysia, DOMINIK M脺LLER noticed that the Islamic Party of Malaysia organizes events and activities that are frequently embellished with popular culture elements, such as bands playing on electric guitars. This seemed at odds with common Western assumptions that Islamic political movements tend to condemn popular culture as un-Islamic. M眉ller then investigated how the change of
[...]
Watch video
Eurasia
Anthropology
11:53
Chris Hann
Is There Actually a Continental Divide Between Europe and Asia?
When studying human social and cultural diversity, there are usually distinctions being made based on world regions. This leads commonly to the assumption that there is a continental divide between Europe and Asia. However, researchers from many disciplines point out that Eurasia should rather be seen as a unity. In the comparative anthropological study CHRIS HANN presents in this video, he found commonalities across the
[...]
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Collective Identity
Cultural Studies
17:03
G眉nther Schlee
Are Conflicts in the 21st Century Mainly Identity-based?
The 20th Century has been marked by a return to ethnic and religious affiliations and identifications which continue to be in the foreground of political discourse. The rise of religious groups is represented by the media as a turbulent phenomenon, which spikes new conflicts globally. These representations of collective identities are politically utilized. Resource conflicts and controversies about citizenship and
[...]
Watch video
Nostalgia
Cultural Studies
12:56
Chris Hann
How Is Nostalgia Felt in Post-Socialist Hungary?
Due to the current dire economic situation in Hungary many feel nostalgic about a time in their nation鈥檚 history when jobs were more secure. Young Hungarians, despite being highly qualified, have trouble finding work in their home country as well as in Europe. This led to high votes for the nationalist parties in the elections of 2014, who promise a return to the time of the great Austro-Hungarian Empire. This
[...]
Watch video
Arts Humanities Videos
Gangsta-Rap
Popular Music Studies
09:35
Michael Ahlers
How Has German Gangsta-Rapper "Kollegah" Used Digital Media for Self-Marketing?
For music artists, the marketing possibilities of digital media have opened up new opportunities independent from the major music industry. MICHAEL AHLERS has examined this process using the German Gangsta rapper Kollegah as example. As Ahlers describes in this video, his research team conducted an interdisciplinary two-part study in focusing on Kollegah鈥檚 skill set and knowledge in one part and in the other one on the
[...]
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Religious Pluralism
Sociology
13:29
Detlef Pollack
What Are the Effects of Religious Pluralism in Society on Individual Religiosity?
One of the basic questions concerning religious pluralism in societies is whether it has a reinforcing or an undermining effect on religiosity of individuals. The two contradicting hypotheses are on the one hand the 鈥榤arket theory鈥 on the other hand the 鈥榮ecularization theory鈥. According to the 鈥榤arket theory鈥 a vast supply of religions in society also increases the demand for it and thus reinforces the
[...]
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Empathy
Philosophy
14:43
Monika Betzler
What Is the Value of Empathy and How Does it Relate to Morality?
To have empathy is often defined as the capacity to imagine or feel like other people feel. In the philosophical tradition morality and empathy have often been seen as intertwined or as one being the condition of the other. More recently, this close link has been questioned. Practical philosopher MONIKA BETZLER investigates how the human capacity to empathize with others is related to the concept of morality. In this
[...]
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Video Gaming
Anthropology
14:09
Christoph Bareither
What Do Players of Video Games Experience When Enacting Virtual Violence?
The topic of virtual violence in video games has been highly contested in Germany and other countries, especially in the context of school shootings. In contrast to these public debates, CHRISTOPH BAREITHER is interested in investigating the emotional experiences players have while enacting virtual violence. As he explains in this video, he used an ethnographic approach known as participant observation 鈥 in this case
[...]
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Disability
Cultural Studies
11:07
Susanne Hartwig
How is Disability Portrayed in Contemporary Culture?
Unlike in Sociology, extensive research on disability has not been conducted in Cultural Studies. In this video, SUSANNE HARTWIG analyzes the ways in which disability has been portrayed in aesthetic texts and how this has developed over time. While stereotypical and reassuring representations of disability remain the norm, Hartwig observes that more unsettling depictions (which lead readers/spectators to question their
[...]
Watch video
Pop-Islamism
Ethnic Studies
12:22
Dominik M眉ller
How Has the Islamic Party of Malaysia鈥檚 Stance Towards Popular Culture Evolved?
While doing anthropological fieldwork in Malaysia, DOMINIK M脺LLER noticed that the Islamic Party of Malaysia organizes events and activities that are frequently embellished with popular culture elements, such as bands playing on electric guitars. This seemed at odds with common Western assumptions that Islamic political movements tend to condemn popular culture as un-Islamic. M眉ller then investigated how the change of
[...]
Watch video
Collective Identity
Cultural Studies
17:03
G眉nther Schlee
Are Conflicts in the 21st Century Mainly Identity-based?
The 20th Century has been marked by a return to ethnic and religious affiliations and identifications which continue to be in the foreground of political discourse. The rise of religious groups is represented by the media as a turbulent phenomenon, which spikes new conflicts globally. These representations of collective identities are politically utilized. Resource conflicts and controversies about citizenship and
[...]
Watch video
Refugee Protection
Cultural Studies
11:31
Jenny Rahel Oesterle
How Were Refugees Protected in the Islamic Early Middle Ages?
The migration of refugees is not a problem of the twenty-first century. Historian JENNY RAHEL OESTERLE investigates the question of how people in need of protection were treated in the Middle Ages. Her particular focus in this video is the Arabian Peninsula in the early seventh century, specifically the Islamic context during the lifetime of Muhammad. The term refugee is coined by a modern understanding in the context of
[...]
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Computer-assisted Linguistics
Literature Language
09:32
Johann-Mattis List
How Well Do Automatic Methods for Language Comparison Work?
There are more than 7,000 languages spoken worldwide. Many languages have evolved from a common ancestry line but we do not yet know where all the languages have come from and why there is such a great diversity. To find out how languages are related and form a family, linguists compare them by sifting through dictionaries, grammars or word lists. Recently, scholars have proposed automatic methods to compare languages
[...]
Watch video
Confucianism
Theology Religion
11:27
Peter van der Veer
Is Confucianism a Religion or a Secular Moral System?
When asked about the place of religion in their culture, many Chinese people will answer that China is a secular country with no major impact of religion. However, as PETER VAN DER VEER explains in this video, the Chinese are more religious than this perspective suggests and perform many rituals in their daily life. His research shows that this interpretation of Confucianism results from the historical influence of
[...]
Watch video
UNESCO World Heritage
Politics International Studies
13:23
Christoph Brumann
How Is the UNESCO World Heritage Title Being Awarded and What Are Its Consequences?
The UNESCO World Heritage title has become a powerful global brand. It influences people鈥檚 decisions of where to travel and conveys prestige and national pride. CHRISTOPH BRUMANN and his research group investigated how this title is being awarded and what its consequences are on the ground at the chosen sites. Brumann explains in this video that using a two-fold anthropological approach, the researchers found that,
[...]
Watch video
History of Science
Arts Humanities
16:12
Lorraine J. Daston
What Science Will Be Remembered Centuries from Now, and Why?
Some sciences like geology, astronomy or demography require a time scale of observation and study of phenomena that lasts longer than a human life span 鈥 and even that of civilizations. These 鈥淪ciences of the Archives鈥 rely on the contribution of scientists who store their data and knowledge for the generations following after them. In this video LORRAINE DASTON explains how an interdisciplinary group of scholars
[...]
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Visitor Research
Sociology
15:17
Volker Kirchberg
Why Do People Visit Art Exhibitions?
The research question presented in this video focuses on the experiences and motivations of visitors to an art exhibition or museum. In order to establish the motivation for exhibition visits, VOLKER KIRCHBERG explains, the research team combined a variety of methodological approaches: questioning the visitors, measuring their cognitive and emotional responses, and tracking their movements through the exhibition. They
[...]
Watch video
Origin of Japanese
Literature Language
12:29
Martine Robbeets
Where Did the Japanese Language and Its Speakers Come From?
One of the most disputed issues in historical-comparative linguistics is the origin of the Japanese language and the question of whether it is related to the Transeurasian languages. MARTINE ROBBEETS has already shown in past research that it is possible to find a small core of evidence that relates Japanese as a daughter language of Transeurasian. This, she explains in this video, leads to new questions: How and why did
[...]
Watch video
Nostalgia
Cultural Studies
12:56
Chris Hann
How Is Nostalgia Felt in Post-Socialist Hungary?
Due to the current dire economic situation in Hungary many feel nostalgic about a time in their nation鈥檚 history when jobs were more secure. Young Hungarians, despite being highly qualified, have trouble finding work in their home country as well as in Europe. This led to high votes for the nationalist parties in the elections of 2014, who promise a return to the time of the great Austro-Hungarian Empire. This
[...]
Watch video
Gender
Philosophy
10:54
Steffi Hobu脽
How Has the Issue of Gender Been Negotiated in Tunisia鈥檚 Recent History?
Since Tunisia鈥檚 independence in 1956, the country has had a unique approach to the issue of gender compared to other Arabic countries as it pushed a public discourse on modernization and women鈥檚 rights. In this video, STEFFI HOBU脽 describes the approach of her researcher group to analyze how the issue of gender has been negotiated in Tunisia and how this has influenced Tunisia鈥檚 cultural memory ever since. By
[...]
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Rituals
Asian Middle Eastern Studies
15:02
Axel Michaels
Why Do People Perform Rituals?
All human societies have rituals, both in everyday life and for special, festive occasions or religious ceremonies. As AXEL MICHAELS points out in this video, rituals are not necessary for our lives. So, why are there so many and why do people follow rituals at all? Michaels has pursued these questions in the context of India. Applying an ethno-indological approach 鈥 observing how rituals are performed in India today
[...]
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Election Posters
Communication Studies
13:37
Axel Philipps
What Are the Characteristics of Defacements of Election Posters?
AXEL PHILIPPS investigates modes of visual protest. In this video, he describes his research of defacements of election posters on the streets. In order to determine the characteristics of these defacements, his research team used so-called 鈥榮treet reading鈥. They focused on defaced election posters on the main streets of Leipzig, Germany. Comparing their material to theoretical concepts drawn from the literature on
[...]
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Society Religion
Cultural Studies
08:09
Russell Gray
Did Religion Play a Causal Role in the Evolution of Large, Complex Societies?
The notion of a powerful god is often said to play a significant role in supporting the transition from small relatively equal hunter and gatherer societies to big hierarchical societies. However, as RUSSELL GRAY explains in this video, while there is a correlation between 鈥渂ig gods鈥 and 鈥渂ig societies鈥, this is no causal relationship. By comparing the evolution of different forms of social organization in
[...]
Watch video
Cartoon Characters
Communication Studies
13:28
Stephan Packard
How Does the Depiction of Cartoon Characters鈥 Bodies and Faces Influence Our Reaction to Them?
As STEPHAN PACKARD explains, readers鈥 interpretation of cartoon characters is strongly influenced by the way they are depicted. Characters in comic books are often drawn in a very reduced way, and show both human and animal-like features. In the semiotic analysis presented in this video the relation between the way characters are depicted and the readers鈥 reaction is examined. An important finding is that the
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Moroccan Family Code
Ethnic Studies
14:49
Marie-Claire Foblets
How Do Moroccans Residing in Different Countries Perceive the Modernized Family Code?
In 2004, Moroccan authorities updated the Moroccan Family Code to reflect the needs of modern families. This was considered a revolutionary move at the time. The research presented in this video sets out to investigate how, after ten years, this modernized code has been implemented in people's lives not only in Morocco but especially in the lives of Moroccans residing in European countries. To get a full picture the
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Covering Crisis
Media Anthropology
09:44
Christiane Brosius
Are There Forms of Media Representation of Extreme Crises that Avoid Commodification and Spectacle?
In the face of extreme crises, such as natural disasters or national catastrophes, media representation frequently tends to be voyeuristic and to transform these events into spectacles. Considering this tendency, CHRISTIANE BROSIUS investigated whether there are forms of representation that allow to be close to people鈥檚 suffering and yet not to commodify it. She chose the 2015 earthquake in Nepal as a starting point and
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Chinese Fiction
Asian Middle Eastern Studies
13:32
Lena Henningsen
What Explains the Impact of Popular Chinese Fiction from the Period After the Foundation of the PRC?
Certain fictional texts written during the seventeen years after the foundation of the People鈥檚 Republic of China (PRC) and before the Cultural Revolution are seen as influential and popular over time. In her research project presented in this video LENA HENNINGSEN investigates which factors lead to said popularity, which normative elements are contained in the texts and how they are constructed. She explains how
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Media Control
Communication Studies
11:29
Stephan Packard
How Are Communicative Functions of Media Control Culturally Defined?
Media Control means uses of media in terms of political power, e.g., censorship. By the means of discourse analysis, the research presented in this video investigates the communication of authorities and asks how they communicate about media they want to censor. As STEPHAN PACKARD explains, his analysis reveals two competing questions in those discourses. One is where and with what legitimacy a line is drawn between
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Victorian Fiction
Literature Language
10:23
Laura Habbe
How Does Late-Victorian Popular Fiction Subvert Scientific Authority?
In late-Victorian popular fiction, science is often represented in an unorthodox way, for example in the figure of mad scientists, such as Dr Jekyll. At the same time, there was a strong belief in the power of science as a tool for progress. The so-called scientific naturalists were strong and successful advocates of the objectivity and truthfulness of scientific work and represented scientists as virtuous model citizens.
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Modes of Language
Literature Language
08:34
Remigius Bunia
Which Features of Language Allow Fiction to Influence People and Their View on Reality?
By integrating findings from cognitive linguistics, psychology and neurology into literary studies the research presented in this video examines the different uses and effects of language in literature. To get a grasp on the qualities of language that make the influence of fiction possible REMIGIUS BUNIA distinguishes two modes of language: one mode for communication about specific objects with specific attributes, and
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Religious Bias
Sociology
10:45
Marc Helbling
Is There a Religious Bias Against Muslim Immigrants?
The research presented in this video explores attitudes towards immigrants and their religious rights in Western societies, based on survey data. MARC HELBLING finds that religiosity and liberal values are key variables: Individuals with liberal values are generally more tolerant towards immigrants 鈥 but tolerate religious rights less. Religious people by contrast are less tolerant towards immigrants 鈥 but more open
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Chinese Cultural Revolution
Politics International Studies
10:12
Daniel Leese
How Did China Juridically Deal with Atrocities Committed During the Cultural Revolution?
In the research presented in this video DANIEL LEESE asks how a party that did not fall from power dealt with atrocities committed under institutions of its own making. The study of case verdicts of an intermediate people鈥檚 court shows that the concept of transitional justice partly applies even though the transition is one from a totalitarian to an authoritarian regime. The study establishes that cases were dealt with
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Roman Republic
History
10:01
Claudia Tiersch
What Were the Cultural Implications of Political Communication in the Late Roman Republic?
Ancient historian CLAUDIA TIERSCH is interested in the political communication in the Late Roman Republic and its cultural implications. More specifically, she has investigated the question of how to understand the political aims of the political groups active at that time 鈥 the populares and the optimates 鈥 and analyzed their methods of addressing their adherents. In this video, she describes her research by
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Evolution of Knowledge
Philosophy
10:44
Ju虉rgen Renn
How Can We Historically Describe the Evolution of Knowledge and How Can We Account for It?
The history of science traditionally focuses on specific time periods or on scientists that made important discoveries. The research presented in this video by J脺RGEN RENN broadens the perspective and looks at the history of knowledge more generally. With the goal to investigate how knowledge evolves historically the researchers looked at it across time periods and disciplinary boundaries. By tracing three dimensions of
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Radio Broadcasting
Communication Studies
09:47
Maja Adena
How Did Radio Broadcasting Affect Public Support for the Nazis in Pre-War Germany?
The study presented in this video looks at effects of radio broadcasting before and during the Nazi dictatorship in Germany. As MAJA ADENA explains, an econometric analysis of the contents of aired programs and of political attitudes in the population show important effects of broadcasting before and after seizure of power by the Nazis in 1933: Before 1933, pro-democratic content had negative effects on voting for the
[...]
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Astronomy Videos
Planet Birth
Astronomy
12:25
Thomas Henning
How Do Planetary Systems Develop out of a Disk of Young Stars?
Over the last two decades the discovery of planets outside our solar systems has enabled researchers to study how planetary systems form - the major question within the field of astronomy today. These planetary systems and the respective planets vary significantly from each other. In order to understand how these differences come about, the research presented in this video goes back to the birth sites of planets and
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TW Hydrae
Physics
08:22
Barbara Ercolano
Is the Protoplanetary Disk of TW Hydrae on the Verge of Dispersal?
What makes exoplanets habitable? BARBARA ERCOLANO pursues this overarching question by focusing on the birth sites of these planets. Planets are born in the circumstellar disk that surrounds every young star. The specific research question presented in this video centers on the star TW Hydrae, which is very close to earth. The researchers investigated whether the T Tauri star 鈥淭W Hydrae鈥 has a protoplanetary disk that
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Ultra-Relativistic Particles
Physics
12:48
Jim Hinton
How Are High-Energy Particles Accelerated and What Is Their Impact?
Galaxies are filled with particles traveling very close to the speed of light; these are so-called ultra-relativistic particles. Until recently, it was very difficult to investigate these particles because of a lack of good observational data and they have been rather neglected in the study of astrophysics. As JIM HINTON explains in this video, his research group is interested in understanding how these particles
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Event Horizon
Physical Sciences
08:21
Andreas Burkert
How Can We Predict What Happens at an Event Horizon?
Every galaxy seems to have a supermassive black hole in its center. A black hole is defined as such because nothing can escape from a certain point inside, not even light. There is, however, a last stable orbit which is called the event horizon outside of which gas can still radiate away. This event horizon might be the key to understanding black holes and, therefore, observers are interested in resolving the event
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Microscopic Structure of Space-Time
Physics
13:35
Astrid Eichhorn
What is the Fundamental Microscopic Structure of Space-Time in our Universe?
What are the building blocks of our universe that everything is made of? In this video, ASTRID EICHHORN explains how her work seeks to reveal the fundamental microscopic structure of space-time. While recent pioneering experiments have confirmed aspects of Einstein鈥檚 General Theory of Relativity, this work seeks to overcome the limitations of current observational technology through theoretical investigations of the
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Milky Way
Physical Sciences
10:33
Hans-Walter Rix
How Can a 3D-Map of Dust Help Measure Distances in our Milky Way?
The dust in our Milky Way is the constituent of the cosmic life cycle. It is the substance from which new stars are generated and it is what stars become once they die. Unfortunately, as HANS-WALTER RIX explains in this video, the dust turns distance measurements of stars in the Milky Way into a difficult endeavor, because it dims objects and blocks light from the material behind it. In his project two common methods of
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Ganymede
Physical Sciences
11:04
Ulrich R. Christensen
What Generates the Magnetic Field of the Jupiter Moon Ganymede?
Over decades, beliefs such as 鈥檛he magnetic fields of planets in our solar system are all the same鈥 or 鈥檓oons don鈥檛 have magnetic fields鈥 were widely held. Using the example of Ganymede, Jupiter鈥檚 biggest moon, both premises were proven wrong. ULRICH R. CHRISTENSEN examines the theory of the so-called iron snow regime as the cause of magnetism: This theory assumes that iron crystallizing at the top of
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Gravity
Physical Sciences
07:33
Bj枚rn Malte Sch盲fer
Can General Relativity Explain the Properties of Gravity on Very Large Scales?
Gravity is the decisive force driving the formation and evolution of cosmic structures. BJ脰RN MALTE SCH脛FER is interested in the properties of gravity on very large scales as well as in very specific questions concerning structure formation, such as how galaxies acquire their angular momentum, how they start rotating, and how galaxies interact with surrounding structures. Currently, the understanding of gravity is based
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Cosmic Structures
Physical Sciences Formal Sciences
11:20
Matthias Bartelmann
How Can the Statistical Properties of Cosmic Structures Be Calculated with Simple Physical Laws?
So far, the understanding we have of cosmic structures comes from numerical simulations. As MATTHIAS BARTELMANN explains in this video, his research group has developed a different method to calculate the statistical properties of cosmic structures in order to better understand why they evolve in the way they do. The researchers employed concepts of statistical field theory and could therefore use much simpler dynamical
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Universe Expansion
Physical Sciences Formal Sciences
11:02
Matteo Maturi
How Can We Find the Cause of the Accelerated Expansion of the Universe?
Galaxies keep drifting apart from one another. This is because the universe is expanding in an accelerated way. It is mostly composed of matter and thus the acceleration should slow down because matter carries gravity and gravity is a force which pulls, but does not push, if one neglects the cosmological constant. This is not the case and it is currently assumed that this accelerated expansion is caused by dark energy.
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Exoplanets
Technology Engineering
13:49
Bernhard Sch枚lkopf
How Can We Use Machine Learning in the Search for Exoplanets?
Exoplanets are planets beyond our own solar system. Since they do not emit much light and moreover are very close to their parent stars they are difficult to detect directly. When searching for exoplanets, astronomers use telescopes to monitor the brightness of the parent star under investigation: Changes in brightness can point to a passing planet that obstructs part of the star鈥檚 surface. The recorded signal, however,
[...]
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Biology Videos
Memory Storage
Neurobiology
08:38
Alessio Attardo
What Are the Basic Principles that Govern Synaptic Plasticity?
Our memories define who we are. Here, learning and memory are essential but how does the brain process and store information? Neurons are the elemental cells that compute and store this information in several ways. ALESSIO ATTARDO is interested in synapses. Synapses are the connections between neurons and this is where information flows. Specifically, Attardo focuses on the basic principles that govern synaptic plasticity
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Cells
Life Sciences
11:47
Volker Haucke
How Does The Recycling Process Within Eukaryotic Cells Work on a Molecular Level?
The research presented in the video investigates how endosomes are able to transport material back to the cell surface in a process called recycling or endosomal exocytosis. In order to do so, endosomes have to have their own identity which is defined by a phosphoinositide, Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P).
To deliver the material to the cell surface the endosomes have to get
[...]
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Cells
Life Sciences
06:18
Erika Pearce
How Does Metabolism Influence the Function of Different T Cell Types?
T cells are an important component of the body鈥檚 immune system. As ERIKA PEARCE explains, there are several types of T cells which form consecutively during the immune response and serve different purposes. Effector T cells combat pathogens from infections or tumors while memory T cells provide protective immunity to prevent re-infection or reoccurring cancer. The research presented in this video investigates how the
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Soil Animal Food Webs
Belowground Ecology
10:22
Stefan Scheu
How Do Belowground Components Contribute to the Healthy Functioning of Ecological Systems?
Being easier to observe, the aboveground components of ecological systems tend to be considered of predominant importance. In this video, STEFAN SCHEU explains the extent to which the healthy functioning of these systems is dependent on what happens underground. With visual observation impossible, Scheu employs isotope labeling to trace the paths taken by particular elements belowground. Where it was heretofore understood
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Multicellular Life
Microbiology
11:25
Thomas Bosch
What Can the Origins of Multicellular Life Teach Us About How Bodies Function?
Multicellular organisms first took their place in the evolutionary chain some 450 million years ago. In this video, THOMAS BOSCH seeks to extend our understanding of how human and animal bodies function via analysis of these ancient creatures. Focusing on the freshwater polyp Hydra and employing techniques including molecular cell biology, modern sequencing technology and in depth study of stem cell behavior, Bosch argues
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Memory Formation
Neurobiology
07:17
Marina Mikhaylova
How Is Cross-Talk Between Calcium and Actin Cytoskeleton Involved in Memory Formation?
How are memories formed and stored in the human brain? This is the overarching question that leads MARINA MIKHAYLOVA鈥檚 research. As she explains, there are two important features of memory formation: plasticity and stability of dendritic spines, small protrusions where synapses are formed. Activity-dependent remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton in dendritic spines is essential for synaptic plasticity. This process is
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Nerve Cells
Connectomics
13:03
Moritz Helmstaedter
How Is the Cerebral Cortex of Mammalian Brains Wired?
Each nerve cell in mammalian brains communicates with about a thousand other nerve cells. This creates a communication network that is likely one of the most complex networks that we know of. Understanding the rules by which this network is created and by which it operates is one of the current questions in neuroscience. MORITZ HELMSTAEDTER studies this connectivity and he is particularly interested in how the cerebral
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Plants
Life Sciences
13:47
Mark Stitt
How Do Plants Regulate Their Behavior Based on Their Carbohydrate Resources?
It has been known since the 1980s that sugars are central to the growth of plants. High levels of carbohydrates enable the plant to assimilate nitrogen to increase amino acid synthesis which then enables them to make proteins more quickly which, in turn, allows the plant to grow faster. It is still unclear, however, how plants sense their levels of carbohydrates and how they regulate their metabolism and growth based on
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Sensory Adaptation
Life Sciences
10:31
Ilona Grunwald Kadow
How Do Behavioral Context and Internal State Influence Sensory Perception and Behavior?
Behavior is flexible and we can adapt it according to certain needs or particular contexts. ILONA GRUNWALD KADOW and her team are interested in the underlying neural mechanisms in the brain and also the genes that allow us to exhibit flexible behavior. As Grunwald Kadow explains in this video, they used fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and genetic methods in their experiments. Their findings suggest that internal
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Monkey Vocalization
Biology
08:01
Steffen R. Hage
Is There Underlying Rhythmicity in the Vocal Behavior of Marmoset Monkeys?
When researchers want to delve deeper into the brain mechanisms of speech patterns, they cannot do all experiments on human subjects. This is why STEFFEN R. HAGE studies the vocalizations of marmoset monkeys. Particularly, as he explains in this video, he is interested in the long sounds these monkeys produce with durations up to three or four seconds. There is a debate whether these long sounds are produced out of
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Biodiversity
Ecology
11:12
Johannes Vogel
How Can We Speed Up the Discovery of Biodiversity on Earth?
Humans may be sharing earth with up to twenty million species of macroscopic life, let alone microscopic life. Today, about 1.8 million species have been described and currently, we discover about 18,000 species per year, which means it would take us thousands of years to describe them all. This is why JOHANNES VOGEL endeavors to increase the current rate of discovery dramatically, as he explains in this video.
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Function of Limbs
Biology
13:12
Martin S. Fischer
How is the Form of Limbs in Dogs Related to their Function?
Looking at bones, joints or muscles, their function is not necessarily clear from their form. MARTIN S. FISCHER鈥檚 overarching research interest has always been the integration of form and function and the function of motion. In this video, he explains how locomotion, how animals and humans move, influences all locomotor operators. To examine the function of form the researchers need to study form during motion. For
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Neural Dynamics
Neurobiology
08:11
Tatjana Tchumatchenko
Can a Single Model Explain Different Functions of the Human Brain?
The human brain has many functions; for instance, it allows people to focus on particular objects and ignore others, or to remember events in the past. TATJANA TCHUMATCHENKO uses mathematical equations in order to understand how our brain achieves this. Previous research in this area has developed models that explain single questions, such as 鈥楬ow does memory work?鈥. However, as she describes in this video, the brain
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Animal Cognition
Zoology
10:53
Russell Gray
Do Kea Birds Have Cooperative Abilities?
The ability to cooperate with each other has given humans one of the key advantages in the colonization of this planet. What about other species? Do they have cooperative abilities as well? RUSSELL GRAY and his fellow researchers have investigated this particular question observing keas, a New Zealand bird known for its playfulness and inquisitiveness. The researchers designed three experimental set-ups that tested the
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Gene Regulation
Biology
09:55
Uwe Ohler
How Are Different Transcripts in Our Genome Translated Into Proteins?
Our genes only make up about one or two percent of the human genome; the rest of the genome contains other functions including how the genes get activated. In current understanding, this regulation of the genes contains the key to the complexity of human development. Many parts of the human genome, not only the genes, get transcribed and the function of these thousands of transcripts is not yet understood. This is a
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Plant Genomics
Biology
15:33
Ian T. Baldwin
How Do Plant Genomes Develop Different Phenotypes Depending on Their Environment?
Once a plant has germinated in a particular location, it cannot change it anymore. This means its growth depends on its location with its particular context, such as soil, herbivores, or sunlight levels. Therefore plants have evolved sophisticated signal transduction systems that allow them to perceive the outside world and then modify their growth, morphology and chemicals production and develop different phenotypes. IAN
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Cortex Folding
Life Sciences
12:29
R眉diger Klein
How Does the Presence of FLRT Proteins Influence Cortex Folding?
R脺DIGER KLEIN and his research group are interested in the question of how newly born cells, so-called neurons, communicate with other cells during embryonic development and how this communication shapes the brain. During development, neurons explore their environment for the presence of chemical signals. One family of such chemical signals are called FLRTs. It is assumed that these FLRT proteins tell the neurons in
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Pathogen-Mediated Selection
Biology
11:53
Tobias Lenz
Why Are Some Genetically Caused Diseases so Frequent in the Human Population?
Why are some people more prone to sickness than others? Individual people differ in their genetic predisposition to disease. TOBIAS LENZ and his research group investigate whether historical selection by pathogens 鈥 by infectious agents 鈥 has shaped the genetic makeup of our immune system today. Their specific focus here is on whether selection by pathogens on specific immune genes, so-called HLA genes, has affected
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Cancer
Life Sciences
11:46
Brigitte Voit
How Can Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Be Treated Effectively in a Variety of Patients?
One the most common types of leukemia is chronic lymphocytic leukemia. To find the right treatment for an individual patient with that disease is a challenging task and many patients develop a resistance against the existing drugs. The purpose of the research presented by BRIGITTE VOIT in this video is to find new drugs that reduce cancer cells while not destroying other cells in the body. The researchers created two
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Natural Killer Cells
Life Sciences
13:14
Carsten Watzl
How Do Natural Killer Cells Protect Themselves and How Does the Killing Process work?
Our immune system has evolved many different cells with different functions to prevent infections. One of these functions is cellular cytotoxicity; this means that cells are able to kill other cells. Natural killer cells (NK cells) are one type of these cells that can achieve cytotoxicity. CARSTEN WATZL experiments with NK cells in order to find out how they protect themselves from their own cytotoxic machinery and how
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Cortex Folding
Life Sciences
13:39
Wieland B. Huttner
Which Evolutionary Changes in the Genome Led to the Development of the Large-Sized Human Brain?
During the evolution of primates their brain size, and specifically the size of their cerebral cortex where the higher cognitive functions are located, expanded. Stem cells in the human brain go through a higher number of cell divisions and thus produce a higher number of neurons then do stem cells in the brains of apes. The research presented in this video investigates which evolutionary changes in the genome caused this
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Medical Imaging
Technology Engineering
06:54
Leif Schr枚der
How Can Magnetic Resonance Imaging Be Improved for Early Disease Detection?
The technique of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, or short MRI, is a useful and widely used tool in clinical diagnostics. However, the current MRI techniques are not sensitive enough to detect low concentrations of drugs or disease related molecules. LEIF SCHR脰DER explains that MRI is typically based on the detection of water molecules. However, the high water concentration that is always present in the body creates a strong
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Genetic Variance
Zoology
08:53
Astrid T. Groot
How Is Genetic Variance Maintained Through Sexual Selection?
How does sexual selection contribute to biodiversity on earth? ASTRID T. GROOT investigates this question using the example of moths. As she explains in this video, in many species, including moths, the most common individuals are chosen as mates and the ones that deviate away from the mean are selected against. Following this principle, you would expect less and less variation but this is not the case. Thus, her research
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Body Tension
Life Sciences
10:12
Peter Fratzl
How Does the Interaction of Water with Collagen Lead to Pretension in Our Connective Tissues?
The connective tissues in our body 鈥 such as skin, tendon, or bones 鈥 all contain a molecule called collagen. When you cut your skin, it springs open. This shows that the tissues in our body are under pretension. The research presented in this video is interested in the question of whether the interaction of collagen with water causes this tension. The researchers found, as PETER FRATZL explains, that the pretension
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Plant Defense
Ecology
10:22
Meredith Schuman
Why and How Do Plants Emit Volatile Compounds When Defending Themselves Against Herbivores?
Plants have at least two ways of defending themselves against herbivores. They can do so directly by producing toxins or compounds that are anti-digestive, or they can indirectly defend themselves by emitting volatile compounds that attract predators and parasitoids of the herbivores. MEREDITH SCHUMANN investigates these indirect defenses. As she explains in this video, there are both fast and slow components to
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Evolution
Life Sciences
14:00
Andrei N. Lupas
How Did the Three-Dimensional Structures of Proteins Evolve in Nature?
Proteins mediate a vast array of functions in the body, like fighting invaders or transporting oxygen. Their remarkable properties are due to their three-dimensional structure which is acquired by a simple chain of molecules, a polypeptide, folding into a complex structure, the protein. This folding process is still not fully understood and hence also difficult to replicate in a laboratory. To learn more about how it
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Cells
Life Sciences
07:00
Asifa Akhtar
How Does the Enzyme MOF Work as a Molecular Bridge between Epigenetics and Metabolism?
All cells in our bodies contain the same genetic information. Yet, these cells make up very different parts of the body like liver, heart, and eyes. This is achieved by expressing certain genes and inactivating others. The protein MOF is known to play an important role in this process: DNA does not flow freely in the cell nucleus but is packaged by histone proteins. There, MOF facilitates reading the genetic information
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Gut Microbiome
Life Sciences
08:47
Ruth E. Ley
To Which Extent Do Genetics Determine the Composition of the Gut Microbiome?
The gut microbiome has a significant influence on various diseases ranging from malnutrition to chronic inflammation. It is largely shaped by environmental factors, like diet and lifestyle. How the genetics of the individual affect the composition of the microbiome, however, was largely unknown. RUTH LEY explains in this video that the research team addressed this question by comparing the microbiome of over 1000 twin
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Adaptation Genetics
Life Sciences
10:32
Diethard Tautz
Do New Genes Stem From the Non-Coding Part of the Genome During Fast Adaptation Processes?
It is often thought that evolution is a slow process. During ecological changes in the environment, however, evolution can happen very fast. One of the reasons for this could be the role of new genes that are recruited during that adaptation. DIETHARD TAUTZ pursues the theory that these new genes come out of the so-called non-coding part of the genome. He is interested in studying the fraction of bioactive molecules that
[...]
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Vaccine
Life Sciences
08:25
Peter H. Seeberger
How Can Vaccine Design Be Modified by the Use of Synthetic Sugars?
Streptococcus pneumoniae kills millions of people worldwide. For the subgroup serotype 8, prevalent in the United States and Western Europe, there is no vaccine to date. In this video, PETER H. SEEBERGER explains the approach of his research group to create a synthetic sugar vaccine against this bacterial infection that works in mice. They relied on synthetic chemistry to assemble sugar chains from monomers; the
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Cells
Life Sciences
07:53
Anthony A. Hyman
How Do Cells Form Compartments and How Is this Related to the Onset of Neurodegenerative Diseases?
Molecules in cells are not randomly distributed but form compartments that perform specific functions. A few years ago, scientists discovered that many of these compartments develop by the process of phase separation which results in liquid-like compartments. This is the case for stress granules 鈥 drops formed by the cell when it is under stress, e.g. from heat or chemicals. As ANTHONY A. HYMAN explains, it has been
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Phenotypic Plasticity
Life Sciences
07:27
Ralf Sommer
How Does the Interplay of Genes, Environment, and Development Affect the Biological Diversity of a Species?
Plants, animals, and fungi show a huge diversity regarding form and phenotype: the observable characteristics of an organism. The research presented in this video uses the model of a particular roundworm to investigate how the phenotype is changed by the environment; this is known as phenotypic plasticity. RALF SOMMER explains that Pristionchus pacificus develops alternative mouth forms depending on their environment,
[...]
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Vaccine
Medicine
08:45
Stefan H. E. Kaufmann
How Can We Improve the Existing Vaccine for Tuberculosis to Combat the Growing Number of Multi-Resistant Strains?
Each year 1.5 million people die of tuberculosis thus making it the number one killer of all contagious diseases. With the number of multi-resistant tuberculosis growing, currently available treatments are no longer as effective as they used to be. The existing vaccine does not protect against pulmonary tuberculosis which is the most common form of the disease and easily transmittable. In this video, STEFAN H. E. KAUFMANN
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Human Brain
Life Sciences
13:28
Angela D. Friederici
Is Language Development in the Child鈥檚 Brain Visible on a Molecular Level?
The ability to process complex syntax is a human characteristic. The development of language comprehension and articulation takes place over a certain period of time during childhood. What happens in the brain on a neural biological level during language acquisition is still unclear. The research explained in this video uses methods that detect and monitor brain activity to determine changes and patterns on the scale of
[...]
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Cancer
Medicine
08:41
Angelika Riemer
Which Antigenic Determinants Can Be Used for Therapeutic Vaccinations Against HPV-Mediated Cancer?
The research presented in this interview pursues the goal of developing a therapeutic vaccine against cancer induced by human papillomavirus (HPV). As ANGELIKA RIEMER explains, the project identified T helper epitopes to enhance existing vaccines and led to the identification of five valuable candidates for inclusion into a therapeutic HPV vaccine. This was accomplished via a computer-based analysis of already existing
[...]
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Genetic Makeup
Anthropology
14:56
Johannes Krause
Are Europeans Today Genetically Different from Their Ancestors?
Different ethnic groups have shaped the genetic makeup of today鈥檚 Europeans. Through migration from various regions of the world, the genetic material of humans who first arrived in Europe forty thousand years ago has seen drastic changes over the last ten thousand years. By analyzing D.N.A extracted from ancient bones, JOHANNES KRAUSE traces back the genetic ancestry of human beings, especially those living in Europe
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Cancer
Medicine
08:53
Sven Diederichs
Which Functions Do the Noncoding Parts of Human RNA Have in Metastasis Formation of Lung Cancer Cells?
Parts of the human RNA that are not translated into proteins may still have an important function. As SVEN DIEDERICHS explains in this video, the occurrence of the RNA gene Malat-1 makes the difference between lung cancer with and without metastasis. By first identifying Malat-1 as the molecular difference between patients and then silencing this RNA gene, it was found that Malat-1 could be a viable target to suppress
[...]
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Cells
Medicine
10:08
Neysan Rafat
Is the Course of a Sepsis Influenced by the Mobilization of Endothelial Progenitor Cells?
Sepsis is a common disease in intensive care. Under this condition the body reacts to infection by injuring its own tissues and organs which leads to high mortality rates. Until now reliable methods to identify vulnerable patients are lacking, and treatment is mainly directed at its symptoms. The research presented in this video focuses on endothelial progenitor cells, a cell type derived from the bone marrow circulating
[...]
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Autism
Medicine
09:09
Nils Brose
Can Autism Be Explained by Biological Causes and Hence Be Treated Medically?
Autism spectrum disorders are largely of genetic origin, and 5-10% of cases are currently known to be caused by a single gene mutation. Understanding the consequences of these mutations in detail can open the way for medical treatment. The study presented in this video focused on how a frequent mutation seen in patients with autism spectrum disorders causes the brain dysfunction that leads to the behavioral symptoms.
[...]
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Immune System
Medicine
07:24
Stefan H. E. Kaufmann
Can Biosignatures Be Used to Develop a Reliable, Fast and Low-Cost Test for Tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis is still a major health issue and the number one killer of all contagious diseases. But while more than 2 billion people are infected with the tuberculosis agent, only 10% develop an active disease. Current diagnostic tests cannot distinguish between infected people and people with active tuberculosis. In this video, STEFAN H. E. KAUFMANN explains that they found a characteristic gene expression profile of
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Cells
Medicine
09:24
Neysan Rafat
What Do We Know About the Potential of Endothelial Cells in Treating Acute Lung Injury?
A positive outcome of an acute lung injury, a by-product of sepsis, is closely linked to a repair process in which endothelial progenitor cells are involved. These cells derive from the bone marrow and circulate in the blood stream. In the past ten years a lot was published on endothelial regeneration. The paper presented in this video aims at bringing together this research to create an overview of what has been achieved
[...]
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Chemistry Videos
Air Pollution
Physical Sciences
12:25
Jos Lelieveld
What are the Sources and Health Effects of Air Pollution?
Mankind is increasingly polluting the atmosphere across the planet. The research detailed in this video is interested in the questions of how this pollution is generated and how it affects the health of people. The investigators found, as JOS LELIEVELD explains, that air pollution leads to millions of premature deaths since it causes, for instance, fatal cerebrovascular and respiratory diseases. The researchers also
[...]
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Plants
Life Sciences
11:11
Jonathan Gershenzon
Which Chemical Traits Protect the Roots of Dandelions Against Insect Damage?
Plants use certain chemical compounds to defend themselves against animals that feed on them. As JONATHAN GERSHENZON explains in this video, dandelions are a very good model to research the defences of plants because they are especially robust. The research team therefore investigated dandelions to identify the compound that protects the roots from being damaged by insects. They studied dandelions from different regions
[...]
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Vaccine
Life Sciences
08:25
Peter H. Seeberger
How Can Vaccine Design Be Modified by the Use of Synthetic Sugars?
Streptococcus pneumoniae kills millions of people worldwide. For the subgroup serotype 8, prevalent in the United States and Western Europe, there is no vaccine to date. In this video, PETER H. SEEBERGER explains the approach of his research group to create a synthetic sugar vaccine against this bacterial infection that works in mice. They relied on synthetic chemistry to assemble sugar chains from monomers; the
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Chemicals Production
Physical Sciences Formal Sciences
12:21
Kai Sundmacher
How Can Chemicals Be Produced in a More Sustainable Process?
KAI SUNDMACHER鈥檚 aim is to introduce a more sustainable process to chemicals production. As he explains in this video, for new technological developments in chemical process engineering a new methodology is needed that is able to include many decision variables in order to find the best pathway from the raw materials to the target product. Therefore, his research team developed an elementary process function (EPF)
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Resource Recovery
Chemistry
11:46
Largus T. Angenent
How Can Waste Be Converted Into a Source of Carbon for the Production of Chemicals?
Currently, the petrochemical industry uses fossil fuels as the source of carbon for the production of many things, including plastics. This is problematic because carbon dioxide adds to climate change and, in addition, fossil fuels are running out. Therefore, LARGUS ANGENENT and his research group are looking for new sources of carbon. As he explains in this video, their aim is to convert waste into the chemicals needed
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Earth's Climate
Physical Sciences Formal Sciences
10:45
Meinrat Andreae
What is the Impact of Aerosol Particles on Cloud Formation?
Rainfall has a large impact on how life functions on earth and this, in turn, has great implications for both the ecosystem and human well-being. The research presented in this video investigates the ways in which the pollution of the air system affects the working of clouds and how they produce rain. By measuring the aerosol particles in clouds in specific areas, MEINRAT O. ANDREAE explains, the research team discovered
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Plant Defense
Ecology
10:22
Meredith Schuman
Why and How Do Plants Emit Volatile Compounds When Defending Themselves Against Herbivores?
Plants have at least two ways of defending themselves against herbivores. They can do so directly by producing toxins or compounds that are anti-digestive, or they can indirectly defend themselves by emitting volatile compounds that attract predators and parasitoids of the herbivores. MEREDITH SCHUMANN investigates these indirect defenses. As she explains in this video, there are both fast and slow components to
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Earth's Climate
Physical Sciences
11:16
Martin Heimann
What Is the Role of the Eurasian Forests Under a Warming Climate?
The Eurasian forests are an important component in the earth鈥檚 climate system: Forests contain a lot of carbon in the vegetation and in the soil. But their role under warming conditions is still unclear 鈥 on the one hand, a higher CO2 level in the air acts like a fertilizer for plants that grow and thus store more CO2 in the
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Chirality
Physical Sciences
19:47
Andreas Seidel-Morgenstern
How Can the Enantiomers of a Chiral Molecule be Separated More Effectively?
Chiral molecules are molecules that behave as image and mirror image to each other; these are also called enantiomers. There is a demand in pure enantiomers, which can be created for the use of a variety of industries, such as drugs for the pharmaceutical industry or herbicides for agrochemistry. ANDREAS SEIDEL-MORGENSTERN and his research team investigate access to these pure enantiomers. To achieve this, they work on
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Materials Surfaces
Physical Sciences
11:28
Oliver B眉nermann
How Can We Experimentally Determine Why Hydrogen Atoms Are Absorbed on Metal Surfaces?
Although very light weight, hydrogen atoms have a high probability to be absorbed by a metal surface upon collision. In this video, OLIVER B脺NERMANN explains collision experiments carried out to determine why this is the case. During the experiment, they shot a hydrogen atom beam at a gold surface and at an insulator, measured the speed and direction of the atoms bouncing back from each surface and compared the results.
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Body Tension
Life Sciences
10:12
Peter Fratzl
How Does the Interaction of Water with Collagen Lead to Pretension in Our Connective Tissues?
The connective tissues in our body 鈥 such as skin, tendon, or bones 鈥 all contain a molecule called collagen. When you cut your skin, it springs open. This shows that the tissues in our body are under pretension. The research presented in this video is interested in the question of whether the interaction of collagen with water causes this tension. The researchers found, as PETER FRATZL explains, that the pretension
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Methods
Life Sciences
08:11
Julio Saez-Rodriguez
How Can the Toxic Effects of Chemical Compounds on Humans Be Predicted by Means of Crowdsourcing?
As humans react differently to chemical substances one of the challenges for public health is to establish which compounds are harmful for whom. The research project presented in this video uses crowdsourcing as part of the DREAM challenges as a method to improve research on this topic by involving the scientific community. Data on different reactions to chemical compounds were shared with scientists all over the world.
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Economics Videos
Parenting
Family Economics
12:12
Matthias Doepke
How Can Economics Help Us Explain Parenting?
The choices that we make as parents are among the most important that we make in our lifetimes: whether to have children, how many children to have, what form of education should we provide. In this video, MATTHIAS DOEPKE explains how the economic method can help us to understand the choices that parents make. Economic factors clearly constrain parental choice and, drawing on the concept of parenting style developed in
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PLS Models
Information Systems
10:24
Marko Sarstedt
Which Metrics Perform Best in PLS Model Comparisons?
Social science researchers need to use modeling to understand complex real-life phenomena. But how does a researcher decide which of the available models is most appropriate? In this video, MARCO SARSTEDT analyzes the metrics employed by researchers in assessing PLS (Partial Least Squares) models, outlining how such assessments can be optimized. Running a Monte Carlo simulation study, Sarstedt explains the inadequacies
[...]
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Student Learning
Economics of Education
12:38
Ludger Woessmann
How is Student Learning Affected by Different Types of Testing?
Student testing is increasingly popular around the world. Though it aids accountability, people have begun to wonder about the consequences of too much testing. In this video, LUDGER WOESSMANN analyses the effects on student learning of different types of testing. With PISA (the Programme for International Student Assessment) providing data on students, schools and testing regimes in 59 participating countries, the study
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Honesty
Behavioral Economics
11:07
Urs Fischbacher
How Can We Measure Honesty and Patterns of Dishonesty?
People鈥檚 honesty is often a crucial consideration in politics and in economics as well as in society more generally. In this video, URS FISCHBACHER outlines his development of an instrument to measure honesty and patterns of dishonesty. Participants rolled a die and were told that their number corresponded to a payoff. Though the experiment showed that people were dishonest, it also demonstrated that this was not always
[...]
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Taxation
Social Cost Benefit Analysis
10:12
Bas Jacobs
Should Governments Apply a Correction for the Cost of Taxation in Social Cost Benefit Analysis?
Distortionary costs of taxation refer to things like individuals鈥 reluctance to work or invest more as a result of governments raising taxes. In this video, BAS JACOBS considers whether governments should apply a correction for such costs of taxation in social benefit cost analyses. Applying the optimal taxation model, Jacobs notes that the distributional benefits of public investment in projects like bridges or
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Antitrust Measures
Economics
11:37
Monika Schnitzer
Does Compulsory Licensing Work as an Effective Antitrust Tool?
Innovation is very important for economic growth and, often, small start-ups are a key generator of innovation. For this, access to patents is essential for innovative start-ups. However, a few dominant companies often hold these patents in a market field and refuse to license their technology to others, as MONIKA SCHNITZER explains in this video. She has investigated whether antitrust measures, such as compulsory
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Road Pricing
Market Design
07:23
Peter Cramton
How Can We Eliminate Traffic Congestion in Urban Centers?
As well as resulting in frustration for drivers, traffic congestion leads to significant economic costs. In this video, PETER CRAMTON argues that a properly implemented road pricing system can enable us to eliminate traffic congestion in urban areas. The study explains that once road usage is accurately measured, principles of market design can be used to develop and implement a highly efficient pricing system with
[...]
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Equity Markets
Financial Economics
09:43
S枚hnke M. Bartram
How Can We Determine the Informational Efficiency of Global Equity Markets?
For equity markets, the digital age means that information transfer and its impact on price are more important than ever. In this video, S脰HNKE M. BARTRAM explains how one goes about measuring the informational efficiency of international equity markets. Analyzing over 25,000 individual stocks from more than 36 countries, Bartram finds that the informational efficiency of global equity markets leaves much to be desired.
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Social Rank
Economics of Education
11:17
Felix Weinhardt
How Can Classroom Rank Affect Students in Later Life?
Many factors in early years鈥 education can have lasting effects. In this video, FELIX WEINHARDT analyzes the impact that a student鈥檚 rank position in the elementary school classroom can have in later life. Working with data from England and Texas, Weinhardt observes that a student鈥檚 rank position at the top, middle or bottom of their elementary school class, along with shifts in that position, can affect not only
[...]
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Replication
Empirical Research
10:24
Maren Duvendack
Why Does Replication Encounter Such Resistance in Economics?
Claims that less than 10% of published scientific papers can be reproduced have led to increased interest in replication, a process whereby researchers check the validity of published empirical findings. In this video, MAREN DUVENDACK investigates why replication has faced particular resistance in economics. Analyzing some 200 replication studies that have appeared in leading economics journals over the past 60 years,
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Financial Crisis
Bank Regulation
12:47
J枚rg Rocholl
What Are the Transmission Channels in a Financial Crisis?
In the 2008 financial crisis, problems originating in the U.S. banking sector had effects not only on other parts of the U.S. economy but also internationally. In this video, J脰RG ROCHOLL sets out to identify the transmission channels through which such problems spread. Focusing, in the first instance, on how the 2008 crisis affected German banks, Rocholl observes that German corporate and retail customers saw their
[...]
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Patents
Economics
11:37
Dietmar Harhoff
Does the Instrument of Opposition During the Patent Filing Process Need to Be Improved?
Patents are a very useful tool for supporting innovations by setting incentives for companies to invest in research and developments. However, only those innovations should be protected by a patent that are truly inventive. Otherwise, patents might actually end up stifling innovations rather than supporting them. This happens in the case of patent thickets where there are overlapping patents that block each other. DIETMAR
[...]
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Decision-Making
Behavioral Economics
11:52
Georg Weizs盲cker
What Is the Economic Relevance of Human Indecisiveness?
When faced with difficult decisions, people often demonstrate a preference for randomization, for the toss of a coin for example. In this video, GEORG H. WEIZS脛CKER explains that economic decision theory struggles to accommodate this phenomenon and he explores its consequences, focusing on the German university application system. Weizs盲cker finds that, for significant numbers of applicants, the propensity to avoid
[...]
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Non-Work
Labor Economics
10:45
Michael Burda
What Can 鈥淣on-Work鈥 Teach Us About the Labor Market?
Periods of non-work occur when employees are at work but not working (outside of scheduled breaks). In this video, MICHAEL C. BURDA analyzes the incidence and intensity of non-work in the United States, considering how it fits in with the business cycle. Drawing on data from the American Time Use Survey, Burda develops a model based on the efficiency wage theory. His research presents some striking insights into the
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Choice Behavior
Economics
13:33
Joachim Winter
Do People Choose Optimal Health Insurance Plans?
The health insurance market is driven by the individual choices consumers make on their insurance plans. The research presented in this video explores the questions of how consumers choose these plans, whether they are able to pick the plan most suited to their situation and whether they switch to another and better health insurance plan when they have the opportunity to do so. JOACHIM WINTER explains that, after running
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Context
Entrepreneurship
00:48
Friederike Welter
What is the Importance of Context in Entrepreneurship Research?
Fieldwork has demonstrated that entrepreneurial behavior and economic theory do not work in the same ways in different national, cultural or regulatory contexts. In this video, FRIEDERIKE WELTER analyzes the importance of context in entrepreneurship research. Developing an interdisciplinary approach that draws on insights from philosophy, anthropology, ethnology, and linguistics, Welter examines how contextual issues have
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Gender Inequality
Development Economics
08:38
Stephan Klasen
How Does Gender Inequality Affect a Country鈥檚 Economic Performance?
Public policy discussions have tended to assume that reducing gender inequality in areas including education, labor force participation and pay will automatically lead to improved economic performance. In this video, STEPHAN KLASEN reviews existing economics research in order to determine whether this assumption is robust. Examining theoretical models, accounting studies, cross-country regressions, and micro-level
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Lying
Behavioral Economics
12:45
Joel Sobel
What are the Costs of Lies?
Economic theory assumes that individuals are self-interested and that they will lie for material advantage. However, this is not always the case as lies have costs. In this video, JOEL SOBEL investigates the precise nature of these costs. Developing a theoretical model of the costs of lies, Sobel tests the resulting hypotheses in laboratory experiments. Though the work shows that a majority of subjects lie to the maximum
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European Union
International Economics
12:48
Guido Tabellini
Is Europe Ready for More Political Integration?
Despite an upsurge in nationalist rhetoric, EU citizens still support European level decision making in several policy areas. For a political union to be effective, however, similarity in policy preferences is necessary. In this video, GUIDO TABELLINI considers whether citizens of different EU states are sufficiently similar in their views of the world to make further political integration feasible. Analyzing survey data
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Gender Inequality
Economics
11:52
Marcela Ib谩帽ez-D铆az
Is Affirmative Action an Effective Policy for Reducing Labor Market Inequality?
Gender inequality remains a widespread problem in labor markets. In this video, MARCELA IB脕脩EZ-D脥AZ asks whether affirmative action is an effective policy for reducing disparities between men and women in terms of pay and access to employment. The research team set up an experiment which revealed gender disparities in application rates for a job, based on the foregrounding of affirmative action. Ib谩帽ez-D铆az
[...]
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Energy Supply
Economics
13:02
Heinz Welsch
How Does Energy Supply Affect Citizen Well-being?
Responding to environmental concerns, many countries are restructuring their electricity supply. In this video, HEINZ WELSCH examines the nature of the relationship between electricity supply structure and citizen well-being. Combining data from the European Social Survey with information on different national electricity supply models, among the study鈥檚 findings is the observation that though wind energy is generally
[...]
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Citizenship Policy
Labor Economics
09:36
Christina Gathmann
How Can We Improve the Performance of Immigrants in the Labor Market?
Immigrants typically perform much worse than natives in the labor market. Focusing on amendments to German citizenship law enacted since reunification, in this video, CHRISTINA GATHMANN examines the impact of those reforms on the integration of immigrants in the German labor market. The study finds that the German liberalization of citizenship policy by shortening residency requirements improved both employment rates and
[...]
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Compromise Effect
Consumer Behavior
10:45
Marko Sarstedt
How are Purchasing Decisions Impacted by the Compromise Effect?
The compromise effect can be observed in the consumer鈥檚 tendency to avoid extreme ends of the available range when making purchasing decisions. In this video, MARKO SARSTEDT investigates the origins of the compromise effect. Describing an experiment that interrogates the effects of a lowering of cognitive capability on purchasing decisions, Sarstedt argues that rather than involving fast or intuitive decision making,
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Diabetes
Health Economics
09:40
Sebastian Vollmer
What is the Global Economic Burden of Diabetes?
Lifestyle and demographic changes have led to diabetes becoming increasingly prevalent in rich and poor countries alike. In this video, SEBASTIAN VOLLMER assesses the global economic burden of diabetes. Going beyond previous studies in its recognition of the differing costs relating to such chronic conditions in both high and low-income countries, the research concludes that the economic burden of diabetes amounts to
[...]
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Fiscal Rules
Public Finance
11:07
Eckhard Janeba
What Can We Learn from Governments鈥 Compliance with Fiscal Rules?
Fiscal rules constrain governments from running deficits or from accumulating too much debt. In this video, ECKHARD JANEBA considers how we can assess and understand compliance with fiscal rules and, therefore, their broader utility. Focusing on the German 鈥淒ebt Break鈥 fiscal rule that requires state governments to run balanced budgets from 2020 onwards, Janeba conducted two waves of surveys with relevant
[...]
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Incoherence
Psychology
13:03
Gerd Gigerenzer
Does Logically Incoherent Decision-Making Really Have Negative Consequences?
As explained in this video it is commonly assumed that logically incoherent decision-making is irrational and costly in that it can lead e.g. to a decrease in happiness or health. An example for this would be a patient reacting differently if doctors speak of a 90% success rate of a surgery instead of a 10% failure rate for the same procedure. The purpose of the study presented here was to examine if there is proof in the
[...]
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Start-Ups
Economics
12:44
Michael Fritsch
What Impact do Start-Ups Really Have on Regional or National Economic Development?
After Joseph Schumpeter, economists have given much credence to the role that new business formation plays in regional economic development. In this video, MICHAEL FRITSCH argues that not all Start-Ups are created equal and proposes a more balanced assessment of the factors underlying economic development. Fritsch鈥檚 research takes a region-based approach and finds that up to two-thirds of the positive economic effects
[...]
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Digital Economy
Economics
11:21
Martin Peitz
Can Multiple Platforms Profitably Co-Exist in Digital Markets?
In the internet age, digital platforms are providing increasingly important settings for buyers and sellers to interact. In this video, MARTIN PEITZ investigates why some markets tend to be dominated by single platforms (e.g. Google for internet search) while others (e.g. hotel booking) allow multiple platforms to profitably co-exist. Using theoretical modeling, the research indicates that sellers in particular markets
[...]
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Entrepreneurial Mindset
Economics
10:56
Michael Frese
How Can an Entrepreneurial Mindset be Developed to Encourage Poverty Reduction?
Good entrepreneurs play a key role in helping poor countries to prosper. In this video, MICHAEL FRESE asks us to consider the fundamental importance of psychological mindset in the development of successful entrepreneurs. Over a two year period, Frese analyzed outcomes achieved by groups of entrepreneurs that had received different forms of training and found that individuals who had been trained to develop an
[...]
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Reciprocity
Economics
11:58
Klaus M. Schmidt
Why Do Decision Makers Reciprocate to Gifts?
Mostly, reciprocity is seen as a positive act. It helps people to cooperate and to engage in mutually beneficial exchange. KLAUS M. SCHMIDT, however, is interested in the negative aspects of reciprocity, for instance when a decision maker is offered a gift by an interested party. His research is focused on two aspects: Why do people reciprocate? And are the remedies discussed, such as disclosure and size limits, really
[...]
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Cash Rewards
Economics
09:03
Christoph M. Schmidt
Do Financial Incentives Help Obese People to Achieve and to Maintain a Target Weight?
By means of a field experiment, the research presented in this video tested the effects of financial incentives on the dieting behavior of obese people. As CHRISTOPH M. SCHMIDT explains, patients leaving rehabilitation clinics have been selected for the study and were given different treatments to help them achieve their target weight. It shows that those patients who received a financial incentive were more successful in
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Innovation
Economics
13:55
Uwe Cantner
How Is Economic Change Influenced by Innovations?
Innovation can be both creative and destructive. It creates new patterns of social and economic life, while at the same time destroying or reforming existing ones. That means that innovations are the product of a given economic system and at the same time change the system they are part of. As UWE CANTNER points out in this video, the economics of innovation and change is shaped by different actors, which influence each
[...]
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Welfare Maximization
Economics
12:37
Felix Bierbrauer
Is Political Competition Good for Social Welfare?
The model presented in this video combines a game theoretic approach with mechanism design to examine the influence of competition on welfare maximization by politicians. It is shown that in 鈥減ure鈥 competition between two politicians only the allocation of favors to the electorate helps winning elections, while welfare-maximizing tools of redistribution do not improve a politician鈥檚 vote-share. As FELIX BIERBRAUER
[...]
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Group Dynamics
Economics
12:11
Simeon Schudy
Do People Tend to Behave Dishonestly in Groups?
In recent years, immoral behavior in firms as well as scandals in the banking sector and non-profit organizations have been widely discussed. Often it is groups rather than individuals who are responsible for these immoral acts. This video presents an economic experiment that investigates whether groups are more likely to lie than individuals; and why this might be the case. As SIMEON SCHUDY explains, significantly more
[...]
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Corporate Organization
Economics
10:34
Dalia Marin
How Does International Competition Affect the Power Distribution in Firms?
In recent years, corporations have become more decentralized and decision-making power within the company has moved from the top level to lower levels of management. DALIA MARIN and her research team are interested in the question of how international trade has affected these changes in the organization of firms. As she explains in this video, they have used recent mathematical models of trade and have combined these with
[...]
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Financial Penalty
Economics
10:35
Matthias Pelster
What Is the Impact of Financial Penalties on the Performance and Stock Returns of Banks?
Opinions on the impact of financial penalties on the profitability of banks are divided: One view argues that they obstruct the functioning of the banking sector; another one says that these penalties are simply another cost of doing business. MATTHIAS PELSTER and his research group have investigated the impact of penalties on the performance of banks in an empirical study in order to properly differentiate between the
[...]
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Performance
Economics
10:22
Bruno S. Frey
Do Awards Yield Better Results in Enhancing Performance than Monetary Incentives?
Monetary incentives, even though apparently efficient in driving performance of workers, have drawbacks, explains BRUNO S. FREY. They can result in a reorientation of workers from their focus on quality towards merely meeting objectives. The experiment presented in this video studies the impact of replacing monetary incentives with symbolic awards. The positive effect on the performance of workers highlights the potential
[...]
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Democracy
Social Sciences
08:51
Carl Christian von Weizs盲cker
Can We Explain the Co-Evolution of Democracy and Market Economy by Adaptive Preferences?
In the research presented in this interview, the idea of adaptive preferences is applied to the co-evolution of democracy and market economy. CARL CHRISTIAN VON WEIZS脛CKER explains that the ideal of democracy and market economy though somehow antithetic are inter-dependent in a normative sense: While democracy provides freedom and stability, progress is only ensured by a market economy that allows for innovation.
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Ultimatum Game
Economics
14:34
Werner G眉th
How Do Players Split an Amount of Money in the Ultimatum Game?
The ultimatum game is one of the most famous experiments in economics. It involves two players, one of them receives a sum of money which he has to share with a second player. The first player, the 鈥減roposer鈥, can decide how much he offers the second player, called 鈥渞esponder鈥, who can either accept or reject the offer. If the responder rejects, neither of the players receives any money. Mathematically, the first
[...]
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Social Order
Philosophy
12:27
Hartmut Kliemt
Is Rational Choice Theory Sufficient to Explain the Coming About of Social Order?
The research presented in this video tackles the old philosophical question on the reasons for social order with the means of modern economics. As HARTMUT KLIEMT elaborates, the rational choice assumption 鈥 that human behavior is guided by looking at causal consequences 鈥 cannot explain sufficiently why social order exists, because it does not account for rule-following behavior. Thus he shows that economic models of
[...]
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Corporate Governance
Law
12:11
Harald Baum
Is the 鈥業ndependent Director鈥 an Effective Corporate Governance Tool Across National Jurisdictions?
The 鈥榠ndependent director鈥 was introduced as a corporate governance tool in the United States in the 1970s and quickly spread to the United Kingdom and from there to Continental Europe and Asian economies. The research presented in this video examines whether this legal transplant works in economies that have different shareholder structures and thus different agency conflicts than the US, and asks why these countries
[...]
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Life Expectancy
Economics
11:23
Uwe Sunde
What Role Does Life Expectancy Play for the Economic Development of Countries?
The findings on the relation between economic development and life expectancy at birth have long been contradictory. In the theoretical model and data analysis presented in this video it is shown that prolongation of life expectancy is a turning point for economic development: As UWE SUNDE explains, the effect of life expectancy on income is negative before the transition to low birth and death rates, and positive
[...]
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Performance
Economics
08:40
Sebastian J. Goerg
What Kind of Reward Scheme Works Best to Induce High Effort in Teams?
The experiment presented in this video explores the interaction of reward schemes and production functions on team effort. SEBASTIAN J. GOERG explains that unequal rewards seem to yield higher efficiency for complementary production functions (i.e., if each worker鈥檚 effort counts); but that symmetric reward schemes induce higher efforts if workers鈥 efforts are substitutes. He concludes that inequality may have a
[...]
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Exclusivity Rebates
Economics
13:02
Alexander Morell
Do Exclusivity Rebates Cause Psychological Switching Costs in Consumers?
Firms, be it coffee shops or airlines, often try to bind customers with exclusivity rebates rewarding loyalty. The lab experiment presented in this video reveals that these programs are 鈥渟ticky鈥: customers stay in those programs longer than would be 鈥渞ational鈥. As ALEXANDER MORELL explains, customers often don鈥檛 switch to alternatives even if reaching the rebate becomes improbable. Contrary to common behavioral
[...]
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Maverick Firms
Economics
11:40
Michael Kurschilgen
Does Knowledge About the Presence of a Maverick in the Market Influence the Price Level?
The experiment presented in this video constructs a heterogeneous duopoly of firms 鈥 on the one hand a firm with an internal structure leading to low prices, and on the other hand a firm acting collusively in price-setting. MICHAEL KURSCHILGEN explains that transparency about the competitor鈥檚 internal structure hampers tacit collusion: If the collusive firm is aware of the other firm鈥檚 internal structure, the firms
[...]
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Moral Behavior
Law
14:31
Stefan Magen
What Can a Behavioral Perspective Teach Us on the Relationship Between Law and Morality?
The research presented in this video analyzes the relationship between law and morality, and asks what role morality plays in social interactions. Using empirical findings from social psychology, behavioral law and economics, it is deduced what people generally perceive as just or fair. The findings show that moral rules enable cooperation and how moral intuitions impact rule following behavior. As STEFAN MAGEN explains,
[...]
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Shadow Banking
Economics
10:34
Paul Schempp
How Does Shadow Banking Influence Financial Stability?
In the banking model of maturity transformation presented in this video, the features of the shadow banking sector and its influences on financial stability are analyzed. As PAUL SCHEMPP explains, the model shows that banks and shadow banks can co-exist without harm to the financial sector as long as the shadow banking sector is small. However, liquidity guarantees from banks to shadow banks and a growing shadow banking
[...]
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Empathy
Economics
13:45
Justin Valasek
How Does Empathy Affect Trade-Offs People Are Willing to Make Between Their Own and Other鈥檚 Income?
The research presented in this video focuses on the question how empathy affects economic choice-behavior. In order to refine existing models of decision-making, two different concepts of empathy 鈥渋magine-self鈥 and 鈥渋magine-other鈥, the latter requiring a higher level of sophistication, were included in game theoretic models. As JUSTIN VALASEK explains, it is established that empathy does not necessarily lead to
[...]
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Enforcement Strategies
Economics
08:54
Christian Traxler
Can Moral Suasion Effectively Induce Compliance with the Law?
In the large-scale natural field experiment presented in this video different treatments to induce compliance with the law were tested: Potential evaders of TV license fees in Austria received different mailings 鈥 one presenting the prospects of financial and legal consequences, one appealing to morals and one communicating high compliance rates. CHRISTIAN TRAXLER explains that only the threat of consequences had a
[...]
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Democracy
Social Sciences
09:18
Niels Petersen
Is There a Relationship Between Anti-Trust Law, Economic Growth, and Democratic Development?
By means of a panel data analysis presented in this interview, NIELS PETERSEN explores the relation between anti-trust institutions, the level of democracy, and economic development. Panel data from 154 states dating from 1960 to 2005 cannot substantiate a positive relation between the existence of anti-trust law and democratic development; the empirical findings even suggest that there is only a weak link between
[...]
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Property Rights
Law
14:36
Christoph Engel
Can We Distribute Goods Efficiently Without Property Rights?
Even in the absence of absolute property rights, ex-post bargaining may lead to efficient distribution of goods, CHRISTOPH ENGEL explains in this video. The findings of this research thus extend the domain of the Coase theorem. In the experiment, with a society of two individuals and a single commodity, a good ends up with the individual who values it most even if only relative property rights 鈥 i.e., rights only
[...]
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Development Banks
Economics
09:55
Hendrik Hakenes
Should Governments Have Their Own Banks?
The model presented in this video is designed to compare different options for the relation between banks and the public sector and different types of subsidies regarding their effects on social welfare. Comparing five options for interlinkage shows that the best choice often are development banks, if they are not allowed to compete with the private banking sector. In this case firms that would not get money from private
[...]
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Loan Portfolios
Financial Mathematics
11:42
Kay Giesecke
How Can We Combine Loans into Balanced Loan Portfolios?
The paper presented in this video, from the field of financial mathematics, addresses the problem of building optimal loan portfolios and develops a novel computational method to do so even if with an infinite number of loans. The new tool was tested on a data-set of 120 million mortgage loans, and was able to solve this high-dimensional problem. As KAY GIESECKE explains, the applied method is an asymptotic approximation
[...]
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Charitable Giving
Economics
08:24
Maja Adena
How Is Charitable Giving Influenced by Suggestions of a Contribution-Level?
The field experiment presented in this video shows that the level of donations can be raised by suggesting a concrete contribution amount to potential donors. As MAJA ADENA explains, the effects were threefold: the average donation level rose, the different suggested amounts were respectively donated more often in the treatment groups during the experiment, and they were still more often after the experiment, when no
[...]
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Motivation
Economics
13:39
Florian Englmaier
How Does Workers鈥 Trustworthiness Influence Their Reaction to Incentives?
Employers and human resource managers in all sectors face the challenge of first selecting 鈥済ood鈥 employees and, once employed, motivating them to strive. As the paper presented in this video exhibits, the two tasks are closely connected: The laboratory experiment showed that workers鈥 鈥渢rustworthiness鈥, has a strong positive impact on their inclination to return wage-gifts by working harder. Hence employers
[...]
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Risk Appetite
Economics
10:45
Ferdinand M. Vieider
Does Compensation by Stock Options Induce Excessive Risk Appetite in Executives?
In the laboratory experiment presented in this video, experimental CEOs were compensated either through stock options or restricted company stock. It shows that stock options induce excessive risk-taking in some cases and that company performance is generally better under compensation through restricted company stock. As FERDINAND M. VIEIDER points out, the main determinant of risk-taking under compensation through stock
[...]
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Human Behavior
Social Sciences
13:07
Carl Christian von Weizs盲cker
Can We Maintain Normative Individualism when Allowing for Preferences to Be Adaptive?
Departing from the standard model of economics with the assumption that humans have fixed preferences, or tastes, more recent behavioral insights show that preferences are influenced by past consumption in a way that the status quo is often valued higher than alternatives. CARL CHRISTIAN VON WEIZS脛CKER adds this 鈥渁daptiveness鈥 to the standard model of preferences and shows that this still allows performing standard
[...]
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Law Videos
Global Animal Law
10:24
Anne Peters
Why Do We Need a Global Animal Law?
There is no global regulation, let alone any hard-law treaties, that deal with the interactions between humans and animals even though these have been globalized in many areas, such as for food, agriculture, or the procurement of pets. This is why ANNE PETERS has initiated a research program on Global Legal Animal Studies as she explains in this video. Analyzing international law and comparing domestic laws, she has
[...]
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Digital Economy
13:18
Josef Drexl
How Can the Data Economy Be Regulated to Promote New Emerging Markets?
In the new digital economy the problem of data protection is not only heatedly debated but also has become the subject of academic research. New business models are emerging based on the current digital transformation of manufacturing and the digital transformation of many smart products. These smart products, such as autonomous cars, collect a huge number of data. The question arises: Who owns the data and how should the
[...]
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Freedom from Work
Human Rights Law
08:44
Nicolas Bueno
Should We Have a New Human Right to Freedom From Work?
The importance of the human right to work is recognized by its inclusion in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In this video, NICOLAS BUENO proposes that we reflect on its necessity and reimagine it as something more ambitious, as a new human right to freedom from work. Analyzing the historical context in which labor and fundamental economic rights emerged, Bueno observes that they were conceived to protect not
[...]
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Immigration
Social Sciences
10:32
Nora Markard
Is It a Violation of the Right to Leave to Prevent Migrants from Crossing the Border to Another State?
The research presented in this video looks into the rightfulness of engaging other states in the protection of EU borders. This happens when EU member states cooperate with the migrants鈥 countries of origin or transit countries in order to hinder refugees from crossing the border, e.g. by providing training or boats for border patrols. As NORA MARKARD explains, one central finding is that when a EU state outsources
[...]
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European Union
Social Sciences
18:18
Dieter Grimm
Where Does the EU鈥檚 Acceptance Problem Come from and How Can It Be Counteracted?
The European Union does not have sufficient legitimacy and is not well accepted by its citizens which leads to a negative impact on the process of European integration. DIETER GRIMM identifies three sources of this problem. First of all, the way the European Parliament, the democratic body, is elected and works is too far from the citizens. Second, the principle of subsidiarity is applied differently in every member state
[...]
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Methods
Social Sciences
12:44
J眉rgen Basedow
Should Different Types of Methodology in Comparative Legal Research Be Combined into One Method?
Comparative law, an important legal method, is becoming ever more relevant in a globalized world. Different methods exist in comparative legal research despite the effort of the discipline to combine them. Whereas the so-called functionalists only look at the written law, the 鈥渓aw as culture鈥-approach demands for taking into consideration also the surrounding factors and conditions such as religion, society or
[...]
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Integration
Law
10:47
Anuscheh Farahat
How Can German Constitutional Law Promote the Inclusion of Migrants?
Through immigration, our society is becoming more diverse. However, the integration and inclusion of migrants is often difficult. ANUSCHEH FARAHAT is interested in the question of how this inclusion can be promoted through the means of law. In particular, she focuses on the structural obstacles migrants face when attempting to participate in society, such as when entering the job market or higher education. As she
[...]
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Contracts
Social Sciences
10:42
Markus Rehberg
What Is the Basic Principle for the Understanding of Contracts?
The research presented in this video deals with the understanding of contracts and contract law. As MARKUS REHBERG explains, the main focus of contract law so far has been the moment of conclusion between the contracting parties, but a basic principle to fully comprehend the nature of contracts is still missing. He suggests to use the 鈥渏ustification principle鈥, outlined in the video, to solve this problem and explains
[...]
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Islamic Custody Rules
Social Sciences
14:40
Nadjma Yassari
How Is the Principle of the Best Interests of the Child Applied in Islamic Family Law?
How do lawgivers define what makes a good parent? NADJMA YASSARI is interested in the impact of the principle of the best interests of the child on custody decisions in the Middle East and countries with common heritage from Islamic family law. As she explains in this video, her research team adopted a comparative inner-Islamic approach. They did not only examine the legal aspects of the question but they also put each
[...]
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Corporate Governance
Law
12:11
Harald Baum
Is the 鈥業ndependent Director鈥 an Effective Corporate Governance Tool Across National Jurisdictions?
The 鈥榠ndependent director鈥 was introduced as a corporate governance tool in the United States in the 1970s and quickly spread to the United Kingdom and from there to Continental Europe and Asian economies. The research presented in this video examines whether this legal transplant works in economies that have different shareholder structures and thus different agency conflicts than the US, and asks why these countries
[...]
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Moral Behavior
Law
14:31
Stefan Magen
What Can a Behavioral Perspective Teach Us on the Relationship Between Law and Morality?
The research presented in this video analyzes the relationship between law and morality, and asks what role morality plays in social interactions. Using empirical findings from social psychology, behavioral law and economics, it is deduced what people generally perceive as just or fair. The findings show that moral rules enable cooperation and how moral intuitions impact rule following behavior. As STEFAN MAGEN explains,
[...]
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Enforcement Strategies
Economics
08:54
Christian Traxler
Can Moral Suasion Effectively Induce Compliance with the Law?
In the large-scale natural field experiment presented in this video different treatments to induce compliance with the law were tested: Potential evaders of TV license fees in Austria received different mailings 鈥 one presenting the prospects of financial and legal consequences, one appealing to morals and one communicating high compliance rates. CHRISTIAN TRAXLER explains that only the threat of consequences had a
[...]
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Balancing
Law
10:30
Niels Petersen
Do Constitutional Courts Use Balancing to Promote Judicial Activism?
In an empirical analysis of the German and the South African constitutional courts and the Canadian Supreme Court, the study presented in this video examines the use of the concept of balancing. Contrary to the common understanding, NIELS PETERSEN shows that courts do not use balancing to engange in judicial activism. Instead, they restrain themselves and employ proportionality as an instrument of rationality review, i.e.
[...]
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Chinese Cultural Revolution
Politics International Studies
10:12
Daniel Leese
How Did China Juridically Deal with Atrocities Committed During the Cultural Revolution?
In the research presented in this video DANIEL LEESE asks how a party that did not fall from power dealt with atrocities committed under institutions of its own making. The study of case verdicts of an intermediate people鈥檚 court shows that the concept of transitional justice partly applies even though the transition is one from a totalitarian to an authoritarian regime. The study establishes that cases were dealt with
[...]
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Democracy
Social Sciences
09:18
Niels Petersen
Is There a Relationship Between Anti-Trust Law, Economic Growth, and Democratic Development?
By means of a panel data analysis presented in this interview, NIELS PETERSEN explores the relation between anti-trust institutions, the level of democracy, and economic development. Panel data from 154 states dating from 1960 to 2005 cannot substantiate a positive relation between the existence of anti-trust law and democratic development; the empirical findings even suggest that there is only a weak link between
[...]
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Medicine Videos
Stroke Treatment
Life Sciences
10:58
Arno Villringer
How Can Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Help Detect, Visualize, and Treat Strokes?
Stroke is one of the most frequent neurological disorders, befalling over 250.000 persons each year in Germany alone. The research underlying this video explores the role of non-invasive methods for stroke diagnosis and therapy. The use of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), which produces image-signals on the basis of the oxygen-concentration in the blood, allows for the detection of increased or decreased
[...]
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Natural Killer Cells
Life Sciences
13:14
Carsten Watzl
How Do Natural Killer Cells Protect Themselves and How Does the Killing Process work?
Our immune system has evolved many different cells with different functions to prevent infections. One of these functions is cellular cytotoxicity; this means that cells are able to kill other cells. Natural killer cells (NK cells) are one type of these cells that can achieve cytotoxicity. CARSTEN WATZL experiments with NK cells in order to find out how they protect themselves from their own cytotoxic machinery and how
[...]
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Conflicts of Interest
Medical Ethics
07:38
Klaus Lieb
How Prevalent is Conflict of Interest in the Medical Profession?
Allegiance to a particular form of therapy or financial ties to a pharmaceutical company are among the phenomena that can undermine a physician鈥檚 primary goal, to provide the best possible treatment for his or her patients. In this video, KLAUS LIEB explores the ways in which conflicts of interest occur for both physicians and medical researchers before providing some suggestions as to how they might be avoided.
[...]
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Gut Microbiome
Life Sciences
08:47
Ruth E. Ley
To Which Extent Do Genetics Determine the Composition of the Gut Microbiome?
The gut microbiome has a significant influence on various diseases ranging from malnutrition to chronic inflammation. It is largely shaped by environmental factors, like diet and lifestyle. How the genetics of the individual affect the composition of the microbiome, however, was largely unknown. RUTH LEY explains in this video that the research team addressed this question by comparing the microbiome of over 1000 twin
[...]
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Medical Imaging
Technology Engineering
06:54
Leif Schr枚der
How Can Magnetic Resonance Imaging Be Improved for Early Disease Detection?
The technique of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, or short MRI, is a useful and widely used tool in clinical diagnostics. However, the current MRI techniques are not sensitive enough to detect low concentrations of drugs or disease related molecules. LEIF SCHR脰DER explains that MRI is typically based on the detection of water molecules. However, the high water concentration that is always present in the body creates a strong
[...]
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Chronic Conditions
Medicine
09:10
Pascal Geldsetzer
How Can We Improve the Response to Chronic Conditions in India?
India suffers from a high prevalence of diabetes and raised blood pressure. In this video, PASCAL GELDSETZER presents a detailed analysis of the prevalence of both conditions in India and asks how they might be better treated and controlled. Using population-based data collected by the Indian government, Geldsetzer shows that there is huge variation in the prevalence of these conditions between different Indian states and
[...]
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Stress Disease
Biology
11:44
Mathias V. Schmidt
Is There a Common Molecular Link that Drives the Stress Risk for Disease?
Almost everybody has to deal with stress sometimes. But what is stress? It is a reaction of the body to a challenging situation which elicits a stress response in the body. Stress is also a risk factor for disease and this is an area that MATHIAS V. SCHMIDT and his research team focus on. The most prominent stress-related disorders are psychiatric disorders and metabolic disorders. Specifically, as Schmidt explains in
[...]
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Human Behavior
Medicine
11:28
Leonhard Schilbach
Which Neural Mechanisms Are Taking Place During Social Interaction of Individuals?
The studies presented in this video show that a focus on social interaction in neuroscience helps to examine the neural mechanisms that are at work in human brains during social interaction. Using a combination of fMRI and eye-tracking, the brain activity during social interaction is observed. As LEONHARD SCHILBACH explains, intact brain mechanisms reward social interaction and thus evoke intrinsic motivation. The new
[...]
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Human Brain
Life Sciences
06:09
Eckart Altenm眉ller
How Does Making Music Change the Brain Depending on the Starting Age?
Only in the last decades research found that experiences change the human brain. The research presented in this video deals with the question how making music reorganizes neural pathways in the brain. In a comparative study of brains of pianists who started playing early in life with those of pianists who started later and those of non-musicians ECKART ALTENM脺LLER found significant differences: Among others, the brain
[...]
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Cells
Life Sciences
11:47
Volker Haucke
How Does The Recycling Process Within Eukaryotic Cells Work on a Molecular Level?
The research presented in the video investigates how endosomes are able to transport material back to the cell surface in a process called recycling or endosomal exocytosis. In order to do so, endosomes have to have their own identity which is defined by a phosphoinositide, Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P).
To deliver the material to the cell surface the endosomes have to get
[...]
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Medical Statistics
Social Sciences
10:09
Markus A. Feufel
How Can the Understanding of Medical Statistics Be Improved?
Knowledge of medical treatments is usually not equally distributed between physicians and patients. Often, doctors need to analyze the available data in the medical domain and then communicate the results about possible options to the patient. MARKUS A. FEUFEL has focused his research on the challenge of this communication. As he describes in this video, his research team found that it is not only the patients who have
[...]
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Tendon Injury
Medicine
05:31
Adamantios Arampatzis
Why Do Elite Athletes Show a Higher Prevalence of Tendinopathy?
High-level athletes, such as basketball and volleyball players, show more than fifty percent prevalence of developing tendinopathy 鈥 an injured tendon 鈥 compared to the normal population. The researchers around ADAMANTIOS ARAMPATZIS assume that the reason for this could be the dysbalances in the adaptation between muscle and tendons. As he describes in this video, the researchers measured and compared the
[...]
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Cells
Life Sciences
07:00
Asifa Akhtar
How Does the Enzyme MOF Work as a Molecular Bridge between Epigenetics and Metabolism?
All cells in our bodies contain the same genetic information. Yet, these cells make up very different parts of the body like liver, heart, and eyes. This is achieved by expressing certain genes and inactivating others. The protein MOF is known to play an important role in this process: DNA does not flow freely in the cell nucleus but is packaged by histone proteins. There, MOF facilitates reading the genetic information
[...]
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Pathogen-Mediated Selection
Biology
11:53
Tobias Lenz
Why Are Some Genetically Caused Diseases so Frequent in the Human Population?
Why are some people more prone to sickness than others? Individual people differ in their genetic predisposition to disease. TOBIAS LENZ and his research group investigate whether historical selection by pathogens 鈥 by infectious agents 鈥 has shaped the genetic makeup of our immune system today. Their specific focus here is on whether selection by pathogens on specific immune genes, so-called HLA genes, has affected
[...]
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Cancer
Life Sciences
11:46
Brigitte Voit
How Can Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Be Treated Effectively in a Variety of Patients?
One the most common types of leukemia is chronic lymphocytic leukemia. To find the right treatment for an individual patient with that disease is a challenging task and many patients develop a resistance against the existing drugs. The purpose of the research presented by BRIGITTE VOIT in this video is to find new drugs that reduce cancer cells while not destroying other cells in the body. The researchers created two
[...]
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Vaccine
Life Sciences
08:25
Peter H. Seeberger
How Can Vaccine Design Be Modified by the Use of Synthetic Sugars?
Streptococcus pneumoniae kills millions of people worldwide. For the subgroup serotype 8, prevalent in the United States and Western Europe, there is no vaccine to date. In this video, PETER H. SEEBERGER explains the approach of his research group to create a synthetic sugar vaccine against this bacterial infection that works in mice. They relied on synthetic chemistry to assemble sugar chains from monomers; the
[...]
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Surgery
Technology Engineering
11:17
Laura De Laporte
How Can Biomaterial Scaffolds Help to Repair Damaged Spinal Cords by Guiding Nerves to Grow Across the Injury?
In the 1980s researchers showed that damaged nerves in the spinal cord have the ability to regrow. Chemical engineers contribute to the field of spinal cord repair by developing biomaterial scaffolds that support cell and nerve growth inside the body after an injury. In the research project explained by LAURA DE LAPORTE in this video, such scaffolds were developed and tested: The special architecture of the developed
[...]
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Cells
Life Sciences
06:18
Erika Pearce
How Does Metabolism Influence the Function of Different T Cell Types?
T cells are an important component of the body鈥檚 immune system. As ERIKA PEARCE explains, there are several types of T cells which form consecutively during the immune response and serve different purposes. Effector T cells combat pathogens from infections or tumors while memory T cells provide protective immunity to prevent re-infection or reoccurring cancer. The research presented in this video investigates how the
[...]
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Cells
Medicine
09:24
Neysan Rafat
What Do We Know About the Potential of Endothelial Cells in Treating Acute Lung Injury?
A positive outcome of an acute lung injury, a by-product of sepsis, is closely linked to a repair process in which endothelial progenitor cells are involved. These cells derive from the bone marrow and circulate in the blood stream. In the past ten years a lot was published on endothelial regeneration. The paper presented in this video aims at bringing together this research to create an overview of what has been achieved
[...]
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Air Pollution
Physical Sciences
12:25
Jos Lelieveld
What are the Sources and Health Effects of Air Pollution?
Mankind is increasingly polluting the atmosphere across the planet. The research detailed in this video is interested in the questions of how this pollution is generated and how it affects the health of people. The investigators found, as JOS LELIEVELD explains, that air pollution leads to millions of premature deaths since it causes, for instance, fatal cerebrovascular and respiratory diseases. The researchers also
[...]
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Robots
Technology Engineering
11:34
Jessica Burgner-Kahrs
How Can the Characteristics of Continuum Robots Be Optimized for a Specific Medical Application?
The use of continuum robots 鈥 robots that are not composed of rigid links and joints but are continuously bending structures 鈥 opens up completely new possibilities for surgery: With this tool surgeons can reach locations in the human body which they would not be able to reach with traditional surgical instruments. This enables them to e.g. remove brain tumors in a minimally invasive way. There are a vast number of
[...]
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Cells
Life Sciences
07:53
Anthony A. Hyman
How Do Cells Form Compartments and How Is this Related to the Onset of Neurodegenerative Diseases?
Molecules in cells are not randomly distributed but form compartments that perform specific functions. A few years ago, scientists discovered that many of these compartments develop by the process of phase separation which results in liquid-like compartments. This is the case for stress granules 鈥 drops formed by the cell when it is under stress, e.g. from heat or chemicals. As ANTHONY A. HYMAN explains, it has been
[...]
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Autism
Medicine
09:09
Nils Brose
Can Autism Be Explained by Biological Causes and Hence Be Treated Medically?
Autism spectrum disorders are largely of genetic origin, and 5-10% of cases are currently known to be caused by a single gene mutation. Understanding the consequences of these mutations in detail can open the way for medical treatment. The study presented in this video focused on how a frequent mutation seen in patients with autism spectrum disorders causes the brain dysfunction that leads to the behavioral symptoms.
[...]
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Cancer
Medicine
08:41
Angelika Riemer
Which Antigenic Determinants Can Be Used for Therapeutic Vaccinations Against HPV-Mediated Cancer?
The research presented in this interview pursues the goal of developing a therapeutic vaccine against cancer induced by human papillomavirus (HPV). As ANGELIKA RIEMER explains, the project identified T helper epitopes to enhance existing vaccines and led to the identification of five valuable candidates for inclusion into a therapeutic HPV vaccine. This was accomplished via a computer-based analysis of already existing
[...]
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Vaccine
Medicine
08:45
Stefan H. E. Kaufmann
How Can We Improve the Existing Vaccine for Tuberculosis to Combat the Growing Number of Multi-Resistant Strains?
Each year 1.5 million people die of tuberculosis thus making it the number one killer of all contagious diseases. With the number of multi-resistant tuberculosis growing, currently available treatments are no longer as effective as they used to be. The existing vaccine does not protect against pulmonary tuberculosis which is the most common form of the disease and easily transmittable. In this video, STEFAN H. E. KAUFMANN
[...]
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Cells
Medicine
10:08
Neysan Rafat
Is the Course of a Sepsis Influenced by the Mobilization of Endothelial Progenitor Cells?
Sepsis is a common disease in intensive care. Under this condition the body reacts to infection by injuring its own tissues and organs which leads to high mortality rates. Until now reliable methods to identify vulnerable patients are lacking, and treatment is mainly directed at its symptoms. The research presented in this video focuses on endothelial progenitor cells, a cell type derived from the bone marrow circulating
[...]
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Immune System
Medicine
07:24
Stefan H. E. Kaufmann
Can Biosignatures Be Used to Develop a Reliable, Fast and Low-Cost Test for Tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis is still a major health issue and the number one killer of all contagious diseases. But while more than 2 billion people are infected with the tuberculosis agent, only 10% develop an active disease. Current diagnostic tests cannot distinguish between infected people and people with active tuberculosis. In this video, STEFAN H. E. KAUFMANN explains that they found a characteristic gene expression profile of
[...]
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Cancer
Medicine
08:53
Sven Diederichs
Which Functions Do the Noncoding Parts of Human RNA Have in Metastasis Formation of Lung Cancer Cells?
Parts of the human RNA that are not translated into proteins may still have an important function. As SVEN DIEDERICHS explains in this video, the occurrence of the RNA gene Malat-1 makes the difference between lung cancer with and without metastasis. By first identifying Malat-1 as the molecular difference between patients and then silencing this RNA gene, it was found that Malat-1 could be a viable target to suppress
[...]
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Physics Videos
Turbulent Flow
Physical Sciences
11:40
Eberhard Bodenschatz
How Can the Statistical Properties of a Turbulent Flow Be Calculated?
For more than one hundred years, scientists have been working to uncover how turbulent flows occur. This would enable them among other things to predict how pollutants spread in water or how pollen travel in air. As EBERHARD BODENSCHATZ explains in this video, new insights are offered by an approach based on Lagrangian Particle Tracking Technique: The researchers focused on a single particle in a fluid and followed it
[...]
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Cosmic Structures
Physical Sciences Formal Sciences
11:20
Matthias Bartelmann
How Can the Statistical Properties of Cosmic Structures Be Calculated with Simple Physical Laws?
So far, the understanding we have of cosmic structures comes from numerical simulations. As MATTHIAS BARTELMANN explains in this video, his research group has developed a different method to calculate the statistical properties of cosmic structures in order to better understand why they evolve in the way they do. The researchers employed concepts of statistical field theory and could therefore use much simpler dynamical
[...]
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Computers
Technology Engineering
14:14
Stuart Parkin
How Can Spintronic Devices Be Built to Improve Computing Capacity?
The silicon-based technologies that is used today to access and compute information is reaching its limits. To further improve computing capacity, this essentially two-dimensional technology, as STUART PARKIN puts it, needs to give way to the three-dimensional approach of spintronic devices that use not only electric current but also the spin of the electrons. In this video, he explains how the research team created a new
[...]
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Quantum Hall Effect
Semiconductors
08:28
Laurens W. Molenkamp
What Is the Quantum Spin Hall Effect and Why Is It Import?
The quantum spin Hall effect was first proposed by Kane and Mele in 2005. In this video, LAURENS MOLENKAMP outlines how his team鈥檚 focus on mercury telluride has provided notable insights into this phenomenon. Conducting transport experiments on special semiconductors grown using a molecular beam epitaxy machine, Molenkamp鈥檚 findings include the identification of the quantum Hall effect in a three dimensional
[...]
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Universe Expansion
Physical Sciences Formal Sciences
11:02
Matteo Maturi
How Can We Find the Cause of the Accelerated Expansion of the Universe?
Galaxies keep drifting apart from one another. This is because the universe is expanding in an accelerated way. It is mostly composed of matter and thus the acceleration should slow down because matter carries gravity and gravity is a force which pulls, but does not push, if one neglects the cosmological constant. This is not the case and it is currently assumed that this accelerated expansion is caused by dark energy.
[...]
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Microscopic Structure of Space-Time
Physics
13:35
Astrid Eichhorn
What is the Fundamental Microscopic Structure of Space-Time in our Universe?
What are the building blocks of our universe that everything is made of? In this video, ASTRID EICHHORN explains how her work seeks to reveal the fundamental microscopic structure of space-time. While recent pioneering experiments have confirmed aspects of Einstein鈥檚 General Theory of Relativity, this work seeks to overcome the limitations of current observational technology through theoretical investigations of the
[...]
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Materials Surfaces
Physical Sciences
12:13
Angel Rubio
How Can New States of Matter Be Generated on a Theoretical Level?
The theory of materials science investigates the electronic and structural properties of advanced materials, nano-structures and bio-molecules. In the study explained in this video, the researchers present a novel theoretical method to describe, design and control how molecules and materials in combination with photons may lead to new states of matter with novel emerging properties. The research aims to theoretically find
[...]
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Materials Surfaces
Physical Sciences
11:26
Stephan Herminghaus
What General Principles Govern the Behavior of Liquids in Porous Materials?
Understanding the behavior of liquids in porous materials is important for very different areas of our lives, ranging from the recovery of oil from rock to water holding capacities of different soils. The study presented in this video is dedicated to the quest for the mechanisms behind these processes. STEPHAN HERMINGHAUS explains that, starting out, the researchers had several ideas for what the general principle might
[...]
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Particle Accelerators
Physical Sciences
14:20
Allen Caldwell
How Can Plasma and Proton Beams Be Used in Building Next Generation Particle Accelerators?
The greatest developments in particle physics have been achieved with the help of particle accelerators. To answer open questions on particles, even stronger accelerators are needed but conventional technology encounters limits. The new 鈥榩lasma-wakefield acceleration鈥 technology is designed to build high performance accelerators that are more compact. As ALLEN CALDWELL explains, the basic idea is to generate a plasma
[...]
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Exoplanets
Technology Engineering
13:49
Bernhard Sch枚lkopf
How Can We Use Machine Learning in the Search for Exoplanets?
Exoplanets are planets beyond our own solar system. Since they do not emit much light and moreover are very close to their parent stars they are difficult to detect directly. When searching for exoplanets, astronomers use telescopes to monitor the brightness of the parent star under investigation: Changes in brightness can point to a passing planet that obstructs part of the star鈥檚 surface. The recorded signal, however,
[...]
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Materials Surfaces
Physical Sciences
09:31
Markus Morgenstern
Do Weak Topological Insulators Exist Outside Theoretical Mathematical Concepts?
Recent research has shown that solid materials can be classified based on their electronic band structure using the abstract mathematical concept of topology. In this video MARKUS MORGENSTERN explains how interdisciplinary research found the first material of a topological type called 鈥渨eak topological insulators鈥 and how this might solve problems in the field of quantum computation.
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Ultra-Relativistic Particles
Physics
12:48
Jim Hinton
How Are High-Energy Particles Accelerated and What Is Their Impact?
Galaxies are filled with particles traveling very close to the speed of light; these are so-called ultra-relativistic particles. Until recently, it was very difficult to investigate these particles because of a lack of good observational data and they have been rather neglected in the study of astrophysics. As JIM HINTON explains in this video, his research group is interested in understanding how these particles
[...]
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Dark Matter
Physical Sciences Formal Sciences
10:35
Manfred Lindner
Can Dark Matter Particles Be Detected Directly by Using a Xenon-based Detector?
Theoretical models suggest that a large part of our universe is made up of dark matter - this has not yet been directly observed but the existence of dark matter is inferred from its gravitational effects such as the rotation of galaxies. Currently researchers work on directly detecting these particles instead of just predicting them theoretically. In this video MANFRED LINDNER describes the detector used by the team of
[...]
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Electron Control
Physical Sciences Formal Sciences
15:37
Thomas Pfeifer
How Can the Motion of Electrons Be Changed by Short Pulses of Laser Light?
THOMAS PFEIFER is interested in the origins of motion: how, on an atomic level, motion is coming into play and how this motion that is initially described by the laws of quantum mechanics then transfers into the classical motion we can see. For this, researchers employ a combination of spectroscopy and laser methods. The specific research question presented in this video investigates how a very fundamental system, such as
[...]
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Black Holes
Physical Sciences
12:13
Gia Dvali
What Is the Fundamental Physics Behind the Information Processing of Black Holes?
The objectives of the research in theoretical physics presented in this video are to understand the fundamental physics behind the properties of black holes and to find out whether black holes are unique in their way of information-processing. As GIA DVALI explains, the research he developed together with CESAR GOMEZ has two important findings. Firstly it shows that quantum criticality is the basic principle of the
[...]
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Materials Surfaces
Physical Sciences
11:28
Oliver B眉nermann
How Can We Experimentally Determine Why Hydrogen Atoms Are Absorbed on Metal Surfaces?
Although very light weight, hydrogen atoms have a high probability to be absorbed by a metal surface upon collision. In this video, OLIVER B脺NERMANN explains collision experiments carried out to determine why this is the case. During the experiment, they shot a hydrogen atom beam at a gold surface and at an insulator, measured the speed and direction of the atoms bouncing back from each surface and compared the results.
[...]
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Ganymede
Physical Sciences
11:04
Ulrich R. Christensen
What Generates the Magnetic Field of the Jupiter Moon Ganymede?
Over decades, beliefs such as 鈥檛he magnetic fields of planets in our solar system are all the same鈥 or 鈥檓oons don鈥檛 have magnetic fields鈥 were widely held. Using the example of Ganymede, Jupiter鈥檚 biggest moon, both premises were proven wrong. ULRICH R. CHRISTENSEN examines the theory of the so-called iron snow regime as the cause of magnetism: This theory assumes that iron crystallizing at the top of
[...]
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Milky Way
Physical Sciences
10:33
Hans-Walter Rix
How Can a 3D-Map of Dust Help Measure Distances in our Milky Way?
The dust in our Milky Way is the constituent of the cosmic life cycle. It is the substance from which new stars are generated and it is what stars become once they die. Unfortunately, as HANS-WALTER RIX explains in this video, the dust turns distance measurements of stars in the Milky Way into a difficult endeavor, because it dims objects and blocks light from the material behind it. In his project two common methods of
[...]
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Gravity
Physical Sciences
07:33
Bj枚rn Malte Sch盲fer
Can General Relativity Explain the Properties of Gravity on Very Large Scales?
Gravity is the decisive force driving the formation and evolution of cosmic structures. BJ脰RN MALTE SCH脛FER is interested in the properties of gravity on very large scales as well as in very specific questions concerning structure formation, such as how galaxies acquire their angular momentum, how they start rotating, and how galaxies interact with surrounding structures. Currently, the understanding of gravity is based
[...]
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Planet Birth
Astronomy
12:25
Thomas Henning
How Do Planetary Systems Develop out of a Disk of Young Stars?
Over the last two decades the discovery of planets outside our solar systems has enabled researchers to study how planetary systems form - the major question within the field of astronomy today. These planetary systems and the respective planets vary significantly from each other. In order to understand how these differences come about, the research presented in this video goes back to the birth sites of planets and
[...]
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Politics International Studies Videos
Earth's Climate
Physical Sciences
09:35
Jonathan Donges
How Do Climate Change Related Natural Disasters Potentially Increase the Risk of Armed Conflicts?
There is an extensive discussion about the connections between climate change related disasters and armed conflicts like civil wars. JONATHAN DONGES explains in this video how the research team looked at this relationship in more detail. Their new approach connects natural disasters with large economic effects, potentially related conflicts as well as the socioeconomic contexts. The findings show that in countries with a
[...]
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Moral Development
Politics International Studies
13:33
Christian Welzel
Do Moral Capacities Change With Improving Living Conditions?
We can see progress all over the world, such as technological transformations, or rising life expectancies and literacy rates. Are these improvements in material conditions accompanied by a change in moral standards? So far, such questions have mainly been discussed in the area of philosophy. CHRISTIAN WELZEL is interested in finding empirical evidence that allows tangible conclusions on this matter. As he explains in
[...]
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Immigration
Social Sciences
10:56
Torsten Heinemann
How Does DNA Testing Affect Family Reunifications in the Immigration Process?
In recent years DNA testing has increasingly been used by immigration authorities to facilitate family reunifications and to verify the family relations of applicants. This has affected immigration procedures and the understanding of the concept of family. As TORSTEN HEINEMANN explains in this video, the researchers investigated how DNA testing is introduced into the immigration process and the implications this has for
[...]
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Terrorism
Politics International Studies
12:08
Carolin G枚rzig
How Do Terrorist Groups Learn and Unlearn Violence?
It is very difficult to learn something new if you haven鈥檛 unlearned what you have done before. In this video, CAROLIN G脰RZIG shows how we can better understand and influence the processes by which terrorist groups learn and unlearn violence. Drawing on insights provided by the deradicalization of organizations like the Provisional IRA (Irish Republican Army), and with fieldwork ongoing in territories including
[...]
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Chronic Conditions
Medicine
09:10
Pascal Geldsetzer
How Can We Improve the Response to Chronic Conditions in India?
India suffers from a high prevalence of diabetes and raised blood pressure. In this video, PASCAL GELDSETZER presents a detailed analysis of the prevalence of both conditions in India and asks how they might be better treated and controlled. Using population-based data collected by the Indian government, Geldsetzer shows that there is huge variation in the prevalence of these conditions between different Indian states and
[...]
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Urban Development
Politics International Studies
11:37
Volker Eichener
Why Do Cities Decline and How Could This Trend Be Countered?
Why do some cities grow and are prosperous whereas others shrink and decline? VOLKER EICHENER investigates the key factors that determine the development of a city and also suggests a strategy for declining cities to reverse this trend. As he explains in this video, he examined population growth or decline in a given city as well as economic variables, such as industry, age, or social structure and used these data for
[...]
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Collective Identity
Cultural Studies
17:03
G眉nther Schlee
Are Conflicts in the 21st Century Mainly Identity-based?
The 20th Century has been marked by a return to ethnic and religious affiliations and identifications which continue to be in the foreground of political discourse. The rise of religious groups is represented by the media as a turbulent phenomenon, which spikes new conflicts globally. These representations of collective identities are politically utilized. Resource conflicts and controversies about citizenship and
[...]
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Refugee Crisis
Sociology
12:02
Ludger Pries
How Were Different Actor Groups Intertwined During the 2015 Refugee Crisis?
During the refugee crisis of 2015, about 1.5 million refugees entered the European Union. LUDGER PRIES examined how it was possible that this massive inflow of people was managed relatively successfully. In particular, he researched how different actor groups, from volunteers and leftist activists to the police, worked closely together. Employing an organizational network analysis in five Mediterranean countries, as he
[...]
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Indian Politics
Politics International Studies
09:13
Rahul Mukherji
How Does India Achieve Change in Its Policies?
India has been known to be a state that never changes. Since the 1980s, and especially after the 1990s, however, India鈥檚 growth trajectory has begun to evolve and change from its static status quo. RAHUL MUKHERJI has investigated the reasons for this change, as he explains in this video. For this, he looked at historical processes and compared processes that have achieved successful change to processes that have failed
[...]
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European Union
Social Sciences
18:18
Dieter Grimm
Where Does the EU鈥檚 Acceptance Problem Come from and How Can It Be Counteracted?
The European Union does not have sufficient legitimacy and is not well accepted by its citizens which leads to a negative impact on the process of European integration. DIETER GRIMM identifies three sources of this problem. First of all, the way the European Parliament, the democratic body, is elected and works is too far from the citizens. Second, the principle of subsidiarity is applied differently in every member state
[...]
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Democracy
Social Sciences
09:52
Bruno S. Frey
Is Random Decision Making a Viable Solution for Replacing or Complementing Contemporary Selection and Election Processes?
Throughout history sortition was often used as an election mechanism for public executive functions. Political systems such as Ancient Athens or Venice during the middle ages elected some of the executive positions by drawing lots. In the research presented in this video BRUNO S. FREY compares those methods with actual processes such as political elections or market decisions in order to investigate the advantages and
[...]
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Life Expectancy
Economics
11:23
Uwe Sunde
What Role Does Life Expectancy Play for the Economic Development of Countries?
The findings on the relation between economic development and life expectancy at birth have long been contradictory. In the theoretical model and data analysis presented in this video it is shown that prolongation of life expectancy is a turning point for economic development: As UWE SUNDE explains, the effect of life expectancy on income is negative before the transition to low birth and death rates, and positive
[...]
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Democracy
Social Sciences
08:51
Carl Christian von Weizs盲cker
Can We Explain the Co-Evolution of Democracy and Market Economy by Adaptive Preferences?
In the research presented in this interview, the idea of adaptive preferences is applied to the co-evolution of democracy and market economy. CARL CHRISTIAN VON WEIZS脛CKER explains that the ideal of democracy and market economy though somehow antithetic are inter-dependent in a normative sense: While democracy provides freedom and stability, progress is only ensured by a market economy that allows for innovation.
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Election Posters
Communication Studies
13:37
Axel Philipps
What Are the Characteristics of Defacements of Election Posters?
AXEL PHILIPPS investigates modes of visual protest. In this video, he describes his research of defacements of election posters on the streets. In order to determine the characteristics of these defacements, his research team used so-called 鈥榮treet reading鈥. They focused on defaced election posters on the main streets of Leipzig, Germany. Comparing their material to theoretical concepts drawn from the literature on
[...]
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Property Rights
Law
14:36
Christoph Engel
Can We Distribute Goods Efficiently Without Property Rights?
Even in the absence of absolute property rights, ex-post bargaining may lead to efficient distribution of goods, CHRISTOPH ENGEL explains in this video. The findings of this research thus extend the domain of the Coase theorem. In the experiment, with a society of two individuals and a single commodity, a good ends up with the individual who values it most even if only relative property rights 鈥 i.e., rights only
[...]
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Immigration
Social Sciences
10:32
Nora Markard
Is It a Violation of the Right to Leave to Prevent Migrants from Crossing the Border to Another State?
The research presented in this video looks into the rightfulness of engaging other states in the protection of EU borders. This happens when EU member states cooperate with the migrants鈥 countries of origin or transit countries in order to hinder refugees from crossing the border, e.g. by providing training or boats for border patrols. As NORA MARKARD explains, one central finding is that when a EU state outsources
[...]
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Welfare Maximization
Economics
12:37
Felix Bierbrauer
Is Political Competition Good for Social Welfare?
The model presented in this video combines a game theoretic approach with mechanism design to examine the influence of competition on welfare maximization by politicians. It is shown that in 鈥減ure鈥 competition between two politicians only the allocation of favors to the electorate helps winning elections, while welfare-maximizing tools of redistribution do not improve a politician鈥檚 vote-share. As FELIX BIERBRAUER
[...]
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International Organizations
Social Sciences
11:29
Klaus Goetz
How Do International Organizations Put Together Their Budgets?
International organizations, such as UNESCO or the EU, which were founded by nation states, rely on the proper planning of their budgets to maintain their infrastructure. KLAUS GOETZ has examined how these organizations put together their budgets. As he explains in this video, he and his co-researchers established two main results after evaluating standing orders, public documents as well as internal documents, and after
[...]
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UNESCO World Heritage
Politics International Studies
13:23
Christoph Brumann
How Is the UNESCO World Heritage Title Being Awarded and What Are Its Consequences?
The UNESCO World Heritage title has become a powerful global brand. It influences people鈥檚 decisions of where to travel and conveys prestige and national pride. CHRISTOPH BRUMANN and his research group investigated how this title is being awarded and what its consequences are on the ground at the chosen sites. Brumann explains in this video that using a two-fold anthropological approach, the researchers found that,
[...]
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Authoritarian Regimes
Social Sciences
10:17
Daniel Leese
What Constitutes a Modern Personality Cult?
In the research overview presented in this video DANIEL LEESE explains the dimensions of modern personality cults found in studies on states such as the Peoples Republic of China, North Korea, the Soviet Union, Vietnam and others. He outlines the elements modern personality cults have in common, their aims and functioning as well as their ideological self-justification.
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Terrorism
Social Sciences
10:41
Bruno S. Frey
What Political Methods Are Effective in Countering Terrorist Threats?
Adequate response to the increasingly high threat of terrorism is a challenge for governments in the beginning of the 21st century. The historical analysis presented in this video examines ways to approach terrorist threats. As BRUNO S. FREY explains, the findings show a new perspective on how to address the terrorist challenge. The specific policy proposals resulting from the study are decentralization of the state
[...]
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Democracy
Social Sciences
09:18
Niels Petersen
Is There a Relationship Between Anti-Trust Law, Economic Growth, and Democratic Development?
By means of a panel data analysis presented in this interview, NIELS PETERSEN explores the relation between anti-trust institutions, the level of democracy, and economic development. Panel data from 154 states dating from 1960 to 2005 cannot substantiate a positive relation between the existence of anti-trust law and democratic development; the empirical findings even suggest that there is only a weak link between
[...]
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Human Behavior
Social Sciences
13:07
Carl Christian von Weizs盲cker
Can We Maintain Normative Individualism when Allowing for Preferences to Be Adaptive?
Departing from the standard model of economics with the assumption that humans have fixed preferences, or tastes, more recent behavioral insights show that preferences are influenced by past consumption in a way that the status quo is often valued higher than alternatives. CARL CHRISTIAN VON WEIZS脛CKER adds this 鈥渁daptiveness鈥 to the standard model of preferences and shows that this still allows performing standard
[...]
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Democracy
Social Sciences
13:20
Philip Leifeld
What Are the Core Mechanisms that Drive the Dynamics of Political Discourse?
The research presented in this video exposes the inner mechanisms at work in political discourse. By first modelling verbal interaction between political actors with an agent-based model, and then analyzing the interaction with network analysis PHILIP LEIFELD detects four basic mechanisms: innovative and path-dependent mechanisms, as well as constructivist mechanisms (based on learning and interaction between people) and
[...]
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Development Banks
Economics
09:55
Hendrik Hakenes
Should Governments Have Their Own Banks?
The model presented in this video is designed to compare different options for the relation between banks and the public sector and different types of subsidies regarding their effects on social welfare. Comparing five options for interlinkage shows that the best choice often are development banks, if they are not allowed to compete with the private banking sector. In this case firms that would not get money from private
[...]
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Religious Bias
Sociology
10:45
Marc Helbling
Is There a Religious Bias Against Muslim Immigrants?
The research presented in this video explores attitudes towards immigrants and their religious rights in Western societies, based on survey data. MARC HELBLING finds that religiosity and liberal values are key variables: Individuals with liberal values are generally more tolerant towards immigrants 鈥 but tolerate religious rights less. Religious people by contrast are less tolerant towards immigrants 鈥 but more open
[...]
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Balancing
Law
10:30
Niels Petersen
Do Constitutional Courts Use Balancing to Promote Judicial Activism?
In an empirical analysis of the German and the South African constitutional courts and the Canadian Supreme Court, the study presented in this video examines the use of the concept of balancing. Contrary to the common understanding, NIELS PETERSEN shows that courts do not use balancing to engange in judicial activism. Instead, they restrain themselves and employ proportionality as an instrument of rationality review, i.e.
[...]
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Technology Videos
Perovskite Solar Cells
Physics
09:10
Michael Saliba
Can the Perovskite Semiconductor Provide Sufficient Sustainable Energy in the Near Future?
One hour of sunlight is enough to power the entire planet for over a year. MICHAEL SALIBA is a leading scientist who investigates how we can tap into this abundant energy source in order to produce sustainable electricity in the future. As he explains in this video, the perovskite semiconductor 鈥 a new material that was discovered about five years ago 鈥 has great potential to advance the use of solar energy. The
[...]
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Exoplanets
Technology Engineering
13:49
Bernhard Sch枚lkopf
How Can We Use Machine Learning in the Search for Exoplanets?
Exoplanets are planets beyond our own solar system. Since they do not emit much light and moreover are very close to their parent stars they are difficult to detect directly. When searching for exoplanets, astronomers use telescopes to monitor the brightness of the parent star under investigation: Changes in brightness can point to a passing planet that obstructs part of the star鈥檚 surface. The recorded signal, however,
[...]
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Surgery
Technology Engineering
11:17
Laura De Laporte
How Can Biomaterial Scaffolds Help to Repair Damaged Spinal Cords by Guiding Nerves to Grow Across the Injury?
In the 1980s researchers showed that damaged nerves in the spinal cord have the ability to regrow. Chemical engineers contribute to the field of spinal cord repair by developing biomaterial scaffolds that support cell and nerve growth inside the body after an injury. In the research project explained by LAURA DE LAPORTE in this video, such scaffolds were developed and tested: The special architecture of the developed
[...]
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Computers
Technology Engineering
14:14
Stuart Parkin
How Can Spintronic Devices Be Built to Improve Computing Capacity?
The silicon-based technologies that is used today to access and compute information is reaching its limits. To further improve computing capacity, this essentially two-dimensional technology, as STUART PARKIN puts it, needs to give way to the three-dimensional approach of spintronic devices that use not only electric current but also the spin of the electrons. In this video, he explains how the research team created a new
[...]
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Quantum Hall Effect
Semiconductors
08:28
Laurens W. Molenkamp
What Is the Quantum Spin Hall Effect and Why Is It Import?
The quantum spin Hall effect was first proposed by Kane and Mele in 2005. In this video, LAURENS MOLENKAMP outlines how his team鈥檚 focus on mercury telluride has provided notable insights into this phenomenon. Conducting transport experiments on special semiconductors grown using a molecular beam epitaxy machine, Molenkamp鈥檚 findings include the identification of the quantum Hall effect in a three dimensional
[...]
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Particle Accelerators
Physical Sciences
14:20
Allen Caldwell
How Can Plasma and Proton Beams Be Used in Building Next Generation Particle Accelerators?
The greatest developments in particle physics have been achieved with the help of particle accelerators. To answer open questions on particles, even stronger accelerators are needed but conventional technology encounters limits. The new 鈥榩lasma-wakefield acceleration鈥 technology is designed to build high performance accelerators that are more compact. As ALLEN CALDWELL explains, the basic idea is to generate a plasma
[...]
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Computer Vision
Technology Engineering
14:03
Daniel Cremers
How Can We Get 3D-Pictures of Moving Objects with Just One Camera?
The recovering of our 3D-world with only one camera is a challenge in many fields ranging from self-driving cars to plastic surgery. In this video DANIEL CREMERS presents innovations from computer vision to tackle that challenge. Modelling the movement of a camera in addition to the geometry of the depicted world and using new algorithms allow the recovery of more pictures in real-time. The algorithms compute the highest
[...]
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Data Security
Technology Engineering
08:52
Matthew Smith
How Can We Prevent Network Security Problems in Smartphone Apps?
Many android apps that try to use SSL to secure network communication fail in doing so and are insecure. By detecting such security flaws and interviewing the developers, the study presented in this video shows the necessity of rethinking how developers interact with security code. As shown, developers are not, as often implied, infallible. This means that prevention of security problems should be carried out by
[...]
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Miscellaneous
Infant Communication
Social Sciences
08:47
Ulf Liszkowski
Do Infants Understand Others as Mental Agents and Communicate Meaningfully Before They Acquire Language?
How do humans understand each other? One unique aspect is the evolution of more than six thousand languages on earth. In order to use language meaningfully a certain social cognitive infrastructure is needed. This infrastructure turns out to be prior to the acquisition of language in humans. The research presented in this video investigates how infants learn to communicate and how they understand other people鈥檚
[...]
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Intercultural Education
Social Sciences
10:57
Elke Grimminger-Seidensticker
Can Physical Education Lessons Promote the Intercultural Competence of School Children?
Our society is becoming more and more diverse concerning cultural, linguistic, ethnic and religious aspects. Therefore, children growing up in a pluralistic society need intercultural competence as a key skill. Schools are a prominent place where children can acquire this competence and some studies suggest that physical education is a particularly adept subject to transmit intercultural competence because it combines
[...]
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Existential Threats
Socio-Economics
14:21
Stefan Brunnhuber
How Can Psychology Help Mankind to Overcome its Greatest Challenges?
With unprecedented acceleration in the geophysical impact of human activities and the identification of 鈥渢ipping points鈥 from which our planet will not be able to recover, mankind faces an increasingly imminent existential threat. In this video, STEFAN BRUNNHUBER describes how insights from psychology could help human beings to overcome these challenges. Brunnhuber demonstrates that existing proposed solutions,
[...]
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Refugee Protection
Cultural Studies
11:31
Jenny Rahel Oesterle
How Were Refugees Protected in the Islamic Early Middle Ages?
The migration of refugees is not a problem of the twenty-first century. Historian JENNY RAHEL OESTERLE investigates the question of how people in need of protection were treated in the Middle Ages. Her particular focus in this video is the Arabian Peninsula in the early seventh century, specifically the Islamic context during the lifetime of Muhammad. The term refugee is coined by a modern understanding in the context of
[...]
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Conflicts of Interest
Medical Ethics
07:38
Klaus Lieb
How Prevalent is Conflict of Interest in the Medical Profession?
Allegiance to a particular form of therapy or financial ties to a pharmaceutical company are among the phenomena that can undermine a physician鈥檚 primary goal, to provide the best possible treatment for his or her patients. In this video, KLAUS LIEB explores the ways in which conflicts of interest occur for both physicians and medical researchers before providing some suggestions as to how they might be avoided.
[...]
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Decision-Making
Psychology
09:49
Joachim Funke
Which Character Traits Are Important for Good Decision-Making?
Decision-making in a complex world is a challenge. Some people are better at it than others. Why is this so? JOACHIM FUNKE focuses his research on identifying those character traits that can be trained or changed and that help people to improve their decision-making behavior. For this, Funke and his team need to identify the personality traits of their study participants and they use simulated situations to analyze their
[...]
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Education
Social Sciences
12:56
Anette Fasang
How Do Parents鈥 Social Networks Affect Their Children鈥檚 Educational Attainment?
Using survey data and combining multilevel modelling with propensity score matching the study presented in this video examines the effects of social networks among parents on their children鈥檚 educational attainment in different social environments. The existing knowledge on the influence of parents鈥 networks is confirmed and refined, as ANETTE FASANG explains. The networks鈥 effects are not exclusively positive, as
[...]
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Incoherence
Psychology
13:03
Gerd Gigerenzer
Does Logically Incoherent Decision-Making Really Have Negative Consequences?
As explained in this video it is commonly assumed that logically incoherent decision-making is irrational and costly in that it can lead e.g. to a decrease in happiness or health. An example for this would be a patient reacting differently if doctors speak of a 90% success rate of a surgery instead of a 10% failure rate for the same procedure. The purpose of the study presented here was to examine if there is proof in the
[...]
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Earth's Climate
Physical Sciences
09:57
Julia Pongratz
Do Land Management Changes Have Effects on Climate as Large as Land Cover Changes?
The study presented in this video evaluates data from observational towers, satellite pictures and other published data to compare the impact of land-cover change and land management change on climate. The results show that land management change within the same vegetation (e.g., harvesting a formerly untouched forest) has effects on climate change that are similarly large as effects of land-cover change (e.g., changing
[...]
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Computer-assisted Linguistics
Literature Language
09:32
Johann-Mattis List
How Well Do Automatic Methods for Language Comparison Work?
There are more than 7,000 languages spoken worldwide. Many languages have evolved from a common ancestry line but we do not yet know where all the languages have come from and why there is such a great diversity. To find out how languages are related and form a family, linguists compare them by sifting through dictionaries, grammars or word lists. Recently, scholars have proposed automatic methods to compare languages
[...]
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Global Warming
Physical Sciences Formal Sciences
11:54
Dirk Notz
When Will Arctic Sea Ice Be Gone?
The Arctic sea ice is the ice that is floating on the Arctic Ocean. In recent decades, this pack ice has been disappearing very rapidly. So the question arises when the Arctic sea ice will be completely gone. DIRK NOTZ has examined this using the Arctic summer sea ice in September as example. As he explains in this video, his research group combined satellite observations with model simulations and found a clear linear
[...]
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Risk Perception
Social Sciences
13:13
Wolfgang Gaissmaier
How Does Risk Perception Change over the Course of Communication Chains?
Risk perception is not only an individual but also a social phenomenon. The experiment presented in this video examines the development of perceived risk over the course of a communication chain: The first person got a balanced overview on a chemical and its risks then information was passed on from person to person. WOLFGANG GAISSMAIER elaborates how this set up led to an amplification of risk perception and the
[...]
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Human Evolution
Anthropology
10:57
Jean-Jacques Hublin
How Could the Modern Human Succeed over Other Hominids?
Modern humans colonized the whole planet and replaced all other hominids, such as Neanderthals. This evolvement raises interesting evolutionary questions concerning both species. The paleoanthropological research presented in this video looks at a moment in time when both co-existed. In order to find out about the differences between them, JEAN-JACQUES HUBLIN looks at both species鈥 use of technology, behavior, and
[...]
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Writing Systems
Literature Language
12:26
Olivier Morin
How Does Writing Reflect Deep Human Preferences for Certain Shapes?
Human development is determined by biology and culture. Biologically seen, the history of evolution has brought us certain cognitive biases, whereas our cultural legacy is built through interactions with other people. OLIVIER MORIN pursues research at the intersection of these two legacies and his particular area of interest is cultural transmission. As he explains in this video, one thing we inherit from evolutionary
[...]
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Methods
Social Sciences
10:12
Susann Fiedler
How Reproducible Are Results from Empirical Psychology?
To maintain confidence in scientific findings, the project presented in this video by SUSANN FIEDLER examines the reproducibility rate of empirical results in psychology: Studies published in three major psychological journals in 2008 are replicated by other researchers in collaboration with the original authors. The results of original and replicated studies are compared to determine the general reproducibility rate in
[...]
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Europe
Arts Humanities
14:05
Klaus Oschema
How Does Medieval Historians' Use of the Notion of 'Europe' Compare to Its Use in the Middle Ages?
The research presented in this video shows the need to reflect precisely the analytical notions and frameworks used when looking at medieval societies, and the limitations of reference to history when tackling contemporary questions. Some of the main findings of the comparative analysis of modern and medieval concepts of Europe conducted by KLAUS OSCHEMA are that 鈥楨urope鈥 and 鈥楥hristianity鈥 were not used
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